Studies in Bilingualism
Characteristics of Hindi written by Kannada Speakers(KANNADA - HINDI)

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1. The present study is an attempt to determine the special features characterizing Kannada-Hindi (KH) on the basis of Hindi writings of Kannada speakers.

The present study has been done on the basis of written material, hence no attempt will be made in this paper to determine the phonetic or phonological characteristics and only the morphological, syntactic and semantic characteristics will be studies.

The written texts on which the present study is based are:

1. ‡½þxnùÒ +Éè®ú EòzÉb÷ ¨Éå ¦ÉÎCiÉ +ÉxnùÉä±ÉxÉ EòÉ iÉÖ±ÉxÉÉi¨É{É VÉvªÉªÉxÉ (Hindi aur Kannada m? bhakti andolan ka tulnatmak adhyayan), which is a Ph.D Thesis, written by Dr. Hiranmaya, M.A., Ph.D., Deptt. Of Hindi, Mysore University and published by Vinod Pustak Mandir, Hospital Road, Agra (referred to as A in this paper).

2. "ÉÉxiɱÉÉ (Shantala) : a novel of K.V. Ayyar, translated by Dr. Hiranmaya, Deptt. Of Hindi, Mysore University (referred to as B in this paper).

Thus the authorship of both the texts is the same person - the former being an original writing in Hindi and the latter, a translation. One would assume that both A and B show certain common characteristics which represent the features of KH. But in reality, B seems to have a greater incidence of Kannada features. Some of these may have made their way in the translation process. Our analysis is based primarily on A and only supporting evidence is brought forth from B.

Our study of the two texts in question reveals that author's competence in Hindi while writing an original work is far superior to that in the case of a translation. The translated work shows a greater incidence of ambiguous and ill formed sentences. It may be hypothesized as a general principle that a translated work will always be better if the target language of a translation is the native language of the translator than vice-versa. A translator may err in not understanding or expressing all that is in the original work, but he will not produce ill formed, clumsy and awkward sentences, which he is more likely to do while translating from his native language into the second language.

2. Noun phrase

2. 1 Kannada-Hindi (KH) shows a deviant number inflection. In Standard Hindi (SH) mass nouns and generic nouns are never inflected for plurality; in KH such inflected forms are attested.

For example,

(i) ±Éä‡EòxÉ <xÉ ºÉ¤É |ÉEòÉ®úÉå Eäò ºÉÉvÉxÉÉå EòÉ ={ɪÉÉäMÉ Eò®úxÉä {É®ú ¦ÉÒ .........
-- A. p. 250

The form |ÉEòÉ®ú is not inflected in SH. SH sentence should be ±Éä‡EòxÉ ºÉ¤É |ÉEòÉ®ú Eäò ºÉÉvÉxÉÉå EòÉ .........

The plural forms in the following examples are also deviant:

(ii) |ÉlÉ¨É iÉÒxÉ ¦ÉÎCiɪÉÉÄ EòɨªÉ ½éþ*
-- A. p. 4

SH usage will be |ÉlÉ¨É iÉÒxÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÒ ¦ÉÎCiÉ. Sh also permits the omission of item ¦ÉÎCiÉ if it occurs in the following sentence. In this case the sentence in SH should be '¯ÖÏ£Ö´Ö ŸÖß­Ö úÖ´µÖ Æïü…' KH sentence is ¸ÉÒ¨ÉnÂù¦ÉÉMÉ´ÉiÉ ¨Éå ¦ÉÎCiÉ Eäò Eò<Ç |ÉEòÉ®ú ¤ÉiÉÉB MÉB ½éþ* 1. ºÉÉÎi´ÉEòÒ 2. ®úÉVɺÉÒ 3. iÉɨɺÉÒ +Éè®ú 4. ‡xÉMÉÖÇhÉ* |ÉlÉ¨É iÉÒxÉ ¦ÉÎCiɪÉÉÄ EòɨªÉ ½éþ* In SH this sentence could be rephrased as ¦ÉÎCiÉ Eäò Eò<Ç |ÉEòÉ®ú ¤ÉiÉÉB MÉÉB ½éþ* .........* |ÉlÉ¨É iÉÒxÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÒ EòɨªÉ ½éþ or |ÉlÉ¨É iÉÒxÉ EòɨªÉ ½éþ* ¦ÉÎCiÉ is always used in singular form.

(iii) 'xÉÉ®únù ¦ÉÎCiÉ ºÉÚjÉ' ¨Éå ¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÉä BEò ½þÒ {É®ú¨É |Éä¨É°ü{ÉÉ ¨ÉÉxÉiÉä ½ÖþB ¦ÉÒ =ºÉä MªÉÉ®ú½þ +ɺÉÎCiɪÉÉå Eäò °ü{É ¨Éå ¤ÉÉÆ]õÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 7

(iv) VÉÉä ¨É½þÉi¨ÉÉVÉxÉ |Éä¨É°ü{ÉÉ ¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÒ {ÉÚhÉÇiÉÉ EòÉä {ɽÖÄþSÉ VÉÉiÉä ½éþ, =xɨÉå iÉÉä ªÉä ºÉ¦ÉÒ +ɺÉÎCiɪÉÉÄ ®ú½þiÉÒ ½éþ*
-- A. p. 7

SH sentence should be

(iii) _______ MªÉÉ®ú½þ |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÒ +ɺÉÎCiÉ Eäò °ü{É ¨Éå __________
(iv) _______ =xɨÉå iÉÉä ªÉä ºÉ¦ÉÒ |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÒ +ɺÉÎCiÉ ®ú½þiÉÒ ½èþ*

In SH these items ¦ÉÎCiÉ and +ɺÉÎCiÉ are not inflected for plurality.

(v) ±ÉMɦÉMÉ bä÷gø ºÉÉè ºÉɱÉÉå Eäò ={É®úÉxiÉ MÉWÉxÉÒ ¨Éå .........
-- A. p. 210
ºÉÉ±É being a generic noun is not inflected in SH. SH use in bä÷gø ºÉÉè ºÉÉ±É Eäò ={É®úÉxiÉ .........

2. 2 There are also instances in KH where a non-generic of SH is treated as a generic noun and thus it not inflected for plurality.

(i) ......... {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ º´É{xÉ ¨Éå |ÉiªÉ¸É ½þÉäEò®ú {É䇮úªÉɳý´ÉÉ®ú ºÉä ªÉ½þ {ÉÚUôxÉä ±ÉMÉä ‡Eò iÉÖ¨ÉxÉä +ÉVÉ ¨ÉÖZÉä ¡Úò±É EòÒ ¨ÉɱÉÉ CªÉÉå xɽþÓ {ɽþxÉɪÉÒ*
-- A. p. 196
SH requires plural form of the item ¡Úò±É in this sentence. According to SH the above sentence should be ......... ¨ÉÖZÉä ¡Úò±ÉÉå EòÒ ¨ÉɱÉÉ CªÉÉå xɽþÓ {ɽþxÉɪÉÒ and not ¡Úò±É EòÒ ¨ÉɱÉÉ as in KH.

2.3 These are deviant inflected forms for obliqueness.

(i) ......... +Éè®ú ¦ÉÎCiÉ "ÉÖ§ÉiÉäVÉ ºÉä SɨÉEòiÉÒ ½èþ +Éè®ú {ÉnùÉ +lÉ´ÉÉ +É´É®úhÉ EòÉä ½þ]õÉiÉÒ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 105

SH usage requires an oblique form ......... {É®únäù +lÉ´ÉÉ +É´É®úhÉ EòÉä .........

(ii) ºÉ®úEòÉ®ú EòÒ +ä®ú ºÉä ¤Écä÷ ¤Éc÷ iÉɱÉÉ¤É xɽþ®åú +ÉnùÒ EòÉ |ɤÉÆvÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 230
The oblique forms of the items iÉɱÉÉ¤É and xɽþ®åú are iÉɱÉɤÉÉå and xɽþ®úÉå. Thus according to SH usage this sentence should be rephrased as follows:

......... ¤Écä÷ ¤Écä÷ iÉɱÉɤÉÉå, xɽþ®úÉå +ÉnùÒ EòÉ |ɤÉÆvÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ*
......... ¤Écä÷ ¤Écä÷ iÉɱÉɤÉÉå +Éè®ú xɽþ®úÉå +ɇnù EòÉ |ɤÉÆvÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ*

(iii) ½þÉè+É EòÉä ‡EòºÉxÉä ¦ÉäVÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 244

SH will use an oblique form of +Éè+É, i.e., this sentence should be '½þÉäB EòÉä ‡EòºÉxÉä ¦ÉäVÉÉ ½èþ' in Sh.

(iv) ‡´É¹hÉÖº´ÉɨÉÒ, ½þVÉÉ®úÉ®úÉ¨É EòÉ ¨ÉÎxnù®ú +Énù EòÉ ‡xɨÉÉÇhÉ ½Öþ+É .........
-- A. p. 230

SH usage should be ......... ½þVÉÉ®úÉ®úÉ¨É Eäò ¨ÉÎxnù®ú +ɇnù EòÉ ‡xɨÉÉÇhÉ ½Öþ+É ......... as more than one temple is being referred to and EòÉ as well as ¨ÉÎxnù®úü will be in oblique form due to the following postposition EòÉ:

2.4 KH has a different word order in noun phrase than SH. The KH noun phrase deviations in terms of SH are as follows:

(i) ½þ‡®únùɺÉÉå Eäò ºÉɇ½þiªÉ EòÒ +Éè®ú BEò ‡´É"Éä¹ÉiÉÉ ªÉ½þ ½èþ ‡Eò =ºÉ¨Éå BäºÉä BEò ºÉ¨ÉÉVÉ EòÒ Eò±{ÉxÉÉ EòÒ MɪÉÒ ½èþ ‡VɺɨÉå |ÉiªÉäEò ´ªÉÎCiÉ EòÉ Sɇ®újÉ .........
-- A. p. 151

In both the cases SH use is BEò +Éè®ú ‡´É"Éä¹ÉiÉÉ and BEò BäºÉä ºÉ¨ÉÉVÉ ......... Thus in SH this sentence will be read as '½þ‡®únùɺÉÉå Eäò ºÉɇ½þiªÉ EòÒ BEò +Éè®ú ‡´É"Éä¹ÉiÉÉ ªÉ½þ ½èþ ‡Eò =ºÉ¨Éå BEò BäºÉä ºÉ¨ÉÉVÉ EòÒ Eò±{ÉxÉÉ ......... '

Thus, where SH uses Numeral Adj., Descriptive Adj. and Noun, KH uses uses Descriptive Adj., Numeral Adj. and Noun.

In SH if a noun has two numeral modifiers - an ordinal and a cardinal - their order is Cardinal Numeral Ordinal Numeral Noun, however KH order is ordinal Numeral Cordinal Numeral Noun.

(ii) nÚùºÉ®úÉ BEò EòÉ®úhÉ ªÉ½þ lÉÉ ‡Eò ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ ¤ÉÖrù Eäò =nùÉkÉ +Énù"ÉÉç EòÉ .........
-- A. p. 215
SH usage is BEò nÚùºÉ®úÉ EòÉ®úhÉ ªÉ½þ lÉÉ ‡Eò .........

(iii) ±ÉMɦÉMÉ cä÷gø ºÉÉè ºÉɱÉÉå Eäò ={É®úÉxiÉ MÉWÉxÉÉ ¨Éå nÚùºÉ®äú BEò ®úÉVÉ-´ÉÆ"É xÉä +{ÉxÉÉ |ɦÉÖi´É ºlÉɇ{ÉiÉ ‡EòªÉÉ*
-- A. p. 210

In SH this sentence can be rephrased as ±ÉMɦÉMÉ ......... ={É®úÉxiÉ MÉWÉxÉÒ ¨Éå BEò nÚùºÉ®åú ®úÉVÉ´ÉÆ"É xÉä +{ÉxÉÉ |ɦÉÖi´É .........

(iv) <ºÉ ¤ÉÉiÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB +Éè®ú BEò ºÉ¤ÉºÉä ¤Éc÷É |ɨÉÉhÉ ªÉ½þÉ ½èþ ‡Eò ®úɨÉÉxÉxnù xÉä ‡VÉºÉ ®úɨÉxÉÉ¨É EòÉä .........
-- A. p. 57

SH use is <ºÉ ¤ÉÉiÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB BEò +Éè®ú |ɨÉÉhÉ ªÉ½þ ½èþ ‡Eò* It may also be noted that in SH a noun cannot take the adjective BEò +Éè®ú as well as ºÉ¤ÉºÉä ¤Éc÷É in the same phrase. Either ºÉ¤ÉºÉä ¤Éc÷É can be used or BEò +Éè®ú* Once we talk of ºÉ¤ÉºÉä ¤Éc÷É we cannot have BEò +Éè®ú as an added constituent due to semantic constraint.

2. 5 Use of pronouns: KH differs from SH in the use of pronouns as well as their placement. The following uses will illustrate the same:

(i) PÉ®ú ¨Éå ‡VÉºÉ ‡nùxÉ ¨É±ÉÉ<ÇnùÉ®ú nÚùvÉ ‡{ɱÉɪÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ =ºÉ ‡nùxÉ ¦É®ú ´É½þ JÉÉxÉÉ iÉEò xɽþÓ JÉÉiÉÉ*
-- A. p. 243

In the relative clause SH requires the pronoun =ºÉä* Thus this sentence should be ......... ‡VÉºÉ ‡nùxÉ =ºÉä ¨É±ÉÉ<ÇnùÉ®ú nÚùvÉ ‡{ɱÉɪÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ =ºÉ ‡nùxÉ .........

(ii) ªÉt‡{É ½þ‡®únùɺÉÉå xÉä +{ÉxÉÒ ®úSÉxÉÉ+Éå ¨Éå ºÉ¨ÉªÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ {É®ú ¨ÉÉv´É¨ÉiÉ ºÉƤÉxvÉÒ iÉi´ÉÉå EòÉ |ɇiÉ{ÉÉnùxÉ ‡EòªÉÉ ½èþ iÉÉä ¦ÉÒ ´É½þ =xÉEäò ºÉɇ½þiªÉ EòÉ ¨ÉÖJªÉ +ÆMÉ xɽþÓ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 152

In this sentence use of demonstrative pronoun can refer to |ɇiÉ{ÉÉnùxÉ which is not intended. The demonstrative is intended to refer to iÉi´ÉÉå* The appropriate form is ´Éä . According to SH the sentence should be ......... |ɇiÉ{ÉÉnùxÉ ‡EòªÉÉ iÉÉä ¦ÉÒ ´Éä =xÉEäò ºÉɇ½þiªÉ EòÉ .........

(iii) ‡EòºÉÒ ‡nùxÉ VÉ¤É näù´Énäù´ÉÒ ¡Úò±É SÉÖxÉ ®ú½þÒ lÉÒ, iÉ¤É VÉÉä®ú EòÉ {ÉÉxÉÒ ¤É®úºÉÉ*
-- A. p. 197

Here the use of the indefinite pronoun ‡EòºÉÒ is not correct according to SH. It should be BEò ‡nùxÉ VÉ¤É .........

(iv) ªÉ½þ ´É½þ ‡"É"ÉÖ ½èþ ‡VɺÉEäò ¨ÉÉ-¤ÉÉ{É xɽþÓ ½èþ, iÉÖ¨É º´ÉªÉÆ ½þÒ {ÉènùÉ ½þÉäEò®ú ¤Ébä÷ ½ÖþB ½þÉä ......... +¨Éät ½þÉä* +{ÉxÉä Sɇ®újÉ EòÉä iÉÖ¨É ½þÒ ¤ÉiÉÉ ºÉEòiÉä ½þÉä*
-- A. p. 104

SH requires pronominal forms of the same person for co-reference, i.e., ªÉ½þ ´É½þ require co-referential pronominal form ´É½þ and not iÉÖ¨É in this sentence. Likewise the use should be ´É½þ º´ÉªÉÆ ½þÒ ......... instead of iÉÖ¨É ½þÒ* In SH this should be ......... ‡VɺÉEäò ¨ÉÉÄ-¤ÉÉ{É xɽþÓ ½èþ, ´É½þ º´ÉªÉÆ ½þÒ {ÉènùÉ ½þÉä Eò®ú ¤Éc÷É ½Öþ+É ½èþ ......... +¨Éät ½èþ* ......... ´É½þ º´ÉªÉä ½þÒ ¤ÉiÉÉ ºÉEòiÉÉ ½èþ*

2. 6. If a pronominal adjective is one of the modifiers of a noun the SH order is pronominal Adjective Adjective Noun. KH attests a different order, i.e., Adj. Pronominal Adj. Noun in the following examples:

(i) .........näù"É ¨Éå ºÉÖJÉ +Éè®ú ºÉ¨ÉÞ‡rù EòÉ EòÉ±É +´É"ªÉ +ÉªÉ +Éè®ú ‡½þxnÖù+Éå xÉä ¦ÉÒ lÉÉäc÷É ¤É½ÖþiÉ =ºÉEòÉ ={ɪÉÉäMÉ +¤É"ªÉ ‡EòªÉÉ*
-- A. p. 214

SH order is ......... ‡½þxnÖù+Éå xÉä ¦ÉÒ =ºÉEòÉ lÉÉäb÷É ¤É½ÖþiÉ ={ɪÉÉäMÉ .........

In SH if a noun phrase has an adjective and a qualifying genitive phrase the order is Genitive phrase and Adjective Noun, i.e., Genitive phrase is always the first Constituent and occurs before all other adjectives - descriptive or numeral. KH shows the word order to be Adjective and Genitive phrase and Noun, e.g.,

(ii) ......... ¤Éɤɮú xÉä |ɇºÉrù {ÉÉxÉÒ{ÉiÉ Eäò ªÉÖrù ¨Éå ‡nù±±ÉÒ Eäò +ÎxiÉ¨É ºÉÖ±ÉiÉÉxÉ <¥Éɽþ¨É EòÉä ½þ®úÉEò®ú .........
-- A. p. 211

SH order is '¤Éɤɮú xÉä {ÉÉxÉÒ{ÉiÉ Eäò |ɇºÉrù ªÉÖrù ¨Éå .........' be noted that the examples (i) and (ii) are similar to the extent that one has the genitival pronominal ˆÃ֍úÖ which behaves like an adjective and the second one has a genitival phrase having a noun constituent, '{ÉÉxÉÒ{ÉiÉ Eäò'…

(iii) <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú ‡SÉxiÉÉ ¨Éå ‡xɨÉMxÉ ½þÉäEò®ú nùÉäxÉÉå ºÉÉä MɪÉä +Éè®ú +SÉÉÇ ¨ÉÚÌiÉ {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ º´É{ÉxÉ ¨Éå |ÉiªÉIÉ ½þÉäEò®ú {É䇮úªÉɲ´ÉÉ®ú ºÉä ªÉ½þ {ÉÚUôxÉä ±ÉMÉä ‡Eò iÉÖ¨ÉxÉä +ÉVÉ ¨ÉÖZÉä ¡Úò±É EòÒ ¨ÉɱÉÉ CªÉÉå xɽþÓ {ɽþxÉɪÉÒ.
-- A. p. 196

Here the parenthesis between the subject and the verb is a little too long, if the order is changed the sentence will be more clear, i.e., nùÉäxÉÉå ºÉÉä MɪÉä +Éè®ú º´É{xÉ ¨Éå |ÉiªÉIÉ ½þÉäEò®ú +SÉÉǨÉÚÌiÉ {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ {É䇮úªÉɲ´ÉÉ®ú ºÉä {ÉÚUôxÉä ±ÉMÉä .........

(iv) ......... ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ ¤ÉÖrù Eäò =nùÉkÉ +Énù"ÉÉç EòÉ =x½þÓ Eäò +xÉÖªÉɪÉÒ {ÉɱÉxÉ Eò®úxÉä ¨Éå +ºÉ¨ÉlÉÇ ½þÉä MɪÉä lÉä*
-- A. p. 215

Here the infinitive phrase ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ ¤ÉÖrù Eäò =nùÉkÉ +Énù"ÉÉç EòÉ {ÉɱÉxÉ Eò®úxÉÉ has been made discontinuous by inserting =x½þÓ Eäò +xÉÖªÉɪÉÒ which is a constituent of the principle clause and not of the infinitive phrase. Hence the order according to SH will be ......... ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ ¤ÉÖrù Eäò =nùÉkÉ +Énù"ÉÉç EòÉ {ÉɱÉxÉ Eò®úxÉä ¨Éå =x½þÓ Eäò +xÉÖªÉɪÉÒ +ºÉ¨ÉlÉÇ ½þÉä MɪÉä lÉä*

2.7 The order and the internal relation of the constituents of a noun phrase are also different in KH. The following is very good example:

(i) ......... EÞò¹hÉ EòlÉÉ EòÉ ‡xÉ°ü{ÉhÉ EÞò¹hÉ Eäò VÉx¨É ºÉä ±ÉäEò®ú EÆòºÉ´ÉvÉ, ´ÉºÉÖnäù´É - näù´ÉEòÒ ¤Éxvɇ´É¨ÉÉäSÉxÉ, =OɺÉäxÉ EòÉä ®úÉVªÉ ‡nù±ÉÉxÉÉ, +GÚò®ú EòÒ <SUôÉ EòÒ {ÉÚÌiÉ Eò®úxÉÉ, +xiÉ ¨Éå MÉÉäEÖò±É Eäò ‡±ÉB |ɺlÉÉxÉ Eò®úxÉÉ +ɇnù PÉ]õxÉÉ+Éå EòÉ ºÉ¨ÉÉ´Éä"É Eò®úEäò MɪÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 179

The structure of the constituent clauses of the object phrase in this sentence is deviant. The sentence is sov; the subject phrase is EÞò¹hÉ EòlÉÉ EòÉ ‡xÉ°ü{ÉhÉ and the verb phrase is ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ* (The original does not have ‡EòªÉÉ which seems to be an omission of printing); the rest is the object phrase in which the first constituent EÞò¹hÉ Eäò VÉx¨É ºÉä ±ÉäEò®ú uses ºÉä ±ÉäEò®úü which requires ŸÖú at the end of last constituent in the enumeration series. However after two more constituents EÆòºÉ´ÉvÉ and ´ÉºÉÖnäù´É näù´ÉEòÒ ¤ÉxvÉ ‡´É¨ÉÉäSÉxÉ, the structure of the constituents changes and derived clausal constituents are used which cannot take a postposition iÉEò grammatically. If iÉEò cannot be used ºÉä ±ÉäEò®úü has to be deleted and the first constituent should then be read as EÞò¹hÉ VÉx¨É or EÞò¹hÉ EòÉ VÉx¨É*

(ii) ......... ºÉÆJªÉ-¦ÉÉ´É EòÒ ºÉÉvÉxÉÉ ¨Éå ¦ÉCiÉ ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ Eäò ºÉ¨¨ÉÖJÉ +{ÉxÉä ¾þnùªÉ EòÒ ¤ÉÉiÉÉå EòÉä ´ªÉCiÉ Eò®úxÉä ¨Éå ‡EòºÉÒ |ÉEòÉ®ú Eäò ºÉÆEòÉäSÉ, ¦ÉªÉ +lÉ´ÉÉ UôÉä]äõ-¤Écä÷ EòÉ +xÉÖ¦É´É xɽþÓ Eò®úiÉÉ*
-- A. p. 249

In this example there are three constituents of the coordinate phrase ......... ºÉÆEòÉäSÉ, ¦ÉªÉ +lÉ´ÉÉ UôÉä]äõ, ¤Écä÷ In SH it is not possible to use abstract nouns and non-abstract nouns as coordinates in the same string. SH will use ÃUôÉä]äõ{ÉxÉ, ¤Éb÷{{ÉxÉ or ±ÉPÉÚiÉÉ, ¨É½þkÉÉ etc., but not UôÉä]õÉ, ¤Éc÷É*

3. Adjectives

3.1. KH differs from SH in the use of adjectives. KH either shows an unnecessary use of adjectives or an inappropriate use of adjectives from the point of view of meaning.

(i) ......... ´ÉhÉÇ ´ªÉ´ÉºlÉÉ Eäò VÉÉä ‡xÉªÉ¨É +‡iÉ |ÉÉSÉÒxÉ EòÉ±É ºÉä SɱÉä +É ®ú½äþ lÉä .........
-- A. p. 218

The use of +‡iÉ in this example is superfluous and will be deleted in SH. This sentence will be ......... ‡xÉªÉ¨É |ÉÉSÉÒxÉ EòÉ±É ºÉä

(ii) nùxÉ ºÉ¤É +SUäô MÉÖhÉÉå Eäò ½þÉäiÉä ½ÖþB ¦ÉÒ ®úÉVÉ{ÉÚiÉ ´ÉÒ®úÉå ¨Éå +xÉäEò nÖùMÉÖÇhÉ ¦ÉÒ ‡´ÉtɨÉÉxÉ lÉä*
-- A. p. 214-215

+SUäô is redundant as MÉÖhÉ in itself conveys a positive meaning:

The inappropriate use of adjective can be illustrated by the following examples:

(iii) ªÉ½þ ¦ÉÒ |ɇºÉ‡rù ½èþ ‡Eò xÉ®ú½þ‡®úiÉÒlÉÇ xÉä Eò˱ÉMÉ ®úÉVÉÉ MÉqùÒ {É®ú ¤Éè`öEò®ú .........
-- A. p. 155

Instead of a noun |ɇºÉ‡rù SH will use a complement adjective |ɇºÉrù* In SH equational sentences do not take normally an abstract noun as a complement as in this KH use.

(iv) PÉcä÷ ¨Éå ®úJÉÉ ½Öþ+É =iÉxÉÉ nÚùvÉ ¨Éå EèòºÉä {ÉÒ ºÉEòiÉÉ ½ÚÄþ*
-- A. p. 214

In this case the quantative adjective should be <iÉxÉÉ to go with the present imperfect verb phrase and not =iÉxÉÉ, moreover VɇvÉEò or VªÉÉnùÉ is also needed for making it an adjective of degree.

(v) =xÉEäò ‡EòiÉxÉä ½þÒ ‡"ɹªÉ =xÉEòÒ ´ÉhÉÉÇ¸É¨É ´ªÉ´ÉºlÉÉ EòÉä xɽþÓ ¨ÉÉxÉiÉä ......... +Éè®ú ‡EòiÉxÉä ½þÒ ªÉ½þ iÉEò ¨ÉÉxÉxÉÉ xɽþÓ SÉɽþiÉä ‡Eò ‡nù´ªÉ MÉÖhÉÉå ºÉä ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ .........
-- A. p. 56

The use of interrogative adjective ‡EòiÉxÉä in both the clauses here is inappropriate. SH will use ¤É½ÖþiÉ ºÉä instead of ‡EòiÉxÉä ½þÒ in both cases.

(vi) ......... <ºÉ‡±ÉB =x½þÉåxÉä ®úɨÉ-xÉÉ¨É EòÒ ¨ÉvÉÖ®úiÉÉ iÉlÉÉ ¦É´ªÉiÉÉ EòÉä {ÉÚhÉÇ ¾þnùªÉÆMÉ¨É Eò®ú ‡±ÉªÉÉ lÉÉ*.........
-- A. p. 58

Here instead of adjective {ÉÚhÉÇ an adverb of manner is required and {ÉÚhÉÇ needs to be replaced by {ÉÚhÉÇiÉªÉ / {ÉÚhÉÇiÉ:

3. 2. (i) xÉÉlÉÉå xÉä +{ÉxÉÒ ºÉÉvÉxÉÉ ¨Éå ºjÉÒ EòÉä ¤Éc÷Ò ¤ÉÉvÉEò ¨ÉÉxÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 48

In SH gender concord of adjective should be with the following noun. Thus in SH it will be ºjÉÒ EòÉä ¤Éc÷É ¤ÉÉvÉEò ¨ÉÉxÉÉ ½èþ*

4. Verb Phrase

KH verb phrase shows deviations from SH verb phrase in respect of the use of simple verses compound or complex verb phrase, the use of tense mood or aspect as well as the ordering of different constituent in the verb phrase.

4.1. KH uses a simple verb where SH usage demands a compound verb.

For example,
(i) ......... ¤ÉÉÁ ´ªÉÉ{ÉÉ®úÉå Eäò ¨ÉÖCiÉ ½þÉäEò®ú VÉÉä ¦ÉVÉiÉÉ ½èþ =ºÉä ‡xÉ&ºÉxnäù½þ ¨ÉÖÎCiÉ ‡¨É±ÉiÉÒ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 137

SH should use a compound verb ......... ¨ÉÖCiÉ ½þÉäEò®ú VÉÉä ¦ÉVÉxÉ Eò®úiÉÉ ½èþ*

(ii) xÉɦÉÉnùÉºÉ xÉä Uô{{ÉªÉ Uôxnù ¨Éå '¦ÉCiɨÉɱÉ' xÉɨÉEò OÉxlÉ ®úSÉÉ ½èþ*.........
-- A. p. 67

SH will use here again a compound verb ......... '¦ÉCiɨÉɱÉ' xÉɨÉEò OÉxlÉ EòÒ ®úSÉxÉÉ EòÒ ½èþ, i.e., ®úSÉxÉÉ Eò®úxÉÉ and not ®úSÉxÉÉ as verb.

(iii) ´Éä ‡xÉ®úÉEòÉ®úÉä{ÉɺÉxÉÉ EòÉ ={Énäù"É Eò®úiÉä nùÒJÉiÉä ½éþ*
-- A. p. 56

SH usage will be Eò®úiÉä ‡nùJÉÉ<Ç näùiÉä ½éþ* It may be mentioned that in terms of collocation SH prefers ={Énäù"É näùxÉÉ to ={Énäù"É Eò®úxÉÉ* In that case this sentence, according to SH can be rephrased as ......... ={Énäù"É näùiÉä ‡nùJÉÉ<Ç {Éc÷iÉä ½éþ*

(iv) ......... ‡´É"ÉÉ±É {É`öÉxÉ ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ Eäò ]ÖõEòcä÷ ½þÉäxÉä "ÉÖ°ü ½þÉä MɪÉä lÉä* 50-60
¤É®úºÉ Eäò +xnù®ú ‡nù±±ÉÒ…É®ú EòÉ ®úÉVªÉ ®úÉVÉvÉÉxÉÒ ‡nù±±ÉÒ Eäò <nÇù ‡MÉnÇù 10-20
¨ÉÒ±É ºÉä +‡vÉEò xɽþÓ ®ú½þÉ*

Here SH usage demands compound verb in past perfect from ®ú½þ VÉÉxÉÉ + Aux. verb and not the KH usage of simple verb ®ú½þxÉÉ in perfect. In SH this should be as ......... 10-20 MÉÒ±É ºÉä +‡vÉEò xɽþÓ ®ú½þ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ*

(v) <ºÉ‡±ÉB ºÉMÉÖhÉ-´Éè¹hÉ´É-¦ÉCiÉÉå xÉä VɤÉ-VÉ¤É +{ÉxÉÒ ¦ÉÎCiÉ ºÉÉvÉxÉÉå Eäò ‡±ÉB ´ÉÉiºÉ±ªÉ-¦ÉÉ´É EòÉä +{ÉxÉɪÉÉ ½èþ iÉ¤É iÉ¤É ‡´É"Éä¹É °ü{É ºÉä ¨ÉÉiÉÞ-¾þnùªÉ Eäò ´ÉÉiºÉ±ªÉ-¦ÉÉ´É EòÉ ¨ÉĘ́ÉEò ´ÉhÉÇxÉ Eò®úxÉä ¨Éå +{ÉxÉÒ ºÉÉ®úÒ "ÉÎCiÉ ±ÉMÉɪÉÒ ½èþ*

According to SH, again there should be a compound verb ±ÉMÉÒ näùxÉÉ here and not a simple verb phrase ±ÉMÉÉxÉÉ*

4.2. KH also uses compound (or conjunct) verbs where SH will use simple verbs e.g.,

(i) <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú ‡xÉÎ"SÉiÉ |ɨÉÉhÉÉå Eäò +¦ÉÉ´É ¨Éå ªÉ½þ ¤ÉiÉÉxÉÉ Eò‡`öxÉ ½þÉä MɪÉÉ ½èþ ‡Eò ‡´É¹hÉÖº´ÉɨÉÒ ºÉÆ|ÉnùÉªÉ .........
-- A. p. 35
SH use is ......... ¤ÉiÉÉxÉÉ Eò‡`öxÉ ½èþ*

(ii) ......... ºÉxiÉ ±ÉÉäMÉ ºÉɇ½þiªÉ-"ÉɺjÉ Eäò YÉÉiÉÉ xɽþÓ lÉä, ......... ´Éä +É{ÉxÉä ¾þnùªÉ Eäò =nÂùMÉÉ®úÉå EòÉä +{ÉxÉÒ VÉÉxÉÒ ¦ÉɹÉÉ ¨Éå +‡¦É´ªÉCiÉ Eò®ú näùiÉä lÉä*
-- A. p. 219

SH should use ......... ¦ÉɹÉÉ ¨Éå +‡¦É´ªÉCiÉ Eò®úiÉä lÉä* It may be pointed out that the use of Compound verb Eò®ú + denotes a meaning other than the one intended here.

(iii) ®ú‡iÉ EòÒ ‡xɨxÉ EòÉä‡]õ "ÉÉÆiÉ ®ú½þiÉÒ ½èþ* +Éè®ú =ºÉEòÉ SÉ®ú¨É +´ÉºÉÉxÉ ¨ÉÉvÉÖªÉÇ ¨Éå ½èþ*

Being a general statement SH usage is simple auxiliary verb ½þÉäxÉÉ and not the imperfect form of the verb ®ú½þxÉÉ* SH sentence should be .................. ®ú‡iÉ EòÒ ‡xɨxÉ EòÉä‡]õ "ÉÉÆiÉ ½èþ*

(iv) MÉÖ°ü iÉÒxÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú Eäò ½Öþ+É Eò®úiÉä ½éþ - nùÒIÉÉ MÉÖ°ü, ‡"ÉIÉÉMÉÖ°ü +Éè®ú ¨ÉÉäIÉÉMÉÖ°ü*
-- A. p. 106

Here is a general statement being made and the SH usage is Öãºþ ŸÖß­Ö ¯ÖύúÖ¸ êúü Æïü .........

(v) <xÉ ½þ¨É±ÉÉå ¨Éå ¨É½þɨÉÚnù xÉä <ºÉ¡ò½þÉxÉ ºÉä ¤ÉÖxnäù±ÉJÉÆb÷ iÉEò +Éè®ú ºÉ¨É®úEòxnù ºÉä MÉÖVÉ®úÉiÉ iÉEò ºÉ¨ÉºiÉ näù"ÉÉå EòÉä VÉÒiÉ ½þɱÉÉ*
-- A. p.208

SH does not demand a Compound verb or Verb + b÷ɱÉxÉÉ type, but will use näù"ÉÉå EòÉä VÉÒiÉÉ*

(vi) ......... +SÉÉǨÉÚÌiÉ {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ º´É{ÉxÉ ¨Éå |ÉiªÉIÉ ½þÉäEò®ú {ɇ®úªÉɲ´ÉÉ®ú ºÉä ªÉ½þ {ÉÚUôxÉä ±ÉMÉä ‡Eò ..................
-- A. p. 196

Here SH will prefer simple verb with xÉä construction, i.e., ......... {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ xÉä º´É{xÉ ......... ªÉ½þ {ÉÚUôÉ ‡Eò .........

4.3 In some cases where KH as well as SH used a compound verb the selection of constituents is different from SH. In some cases the semantic appropriateness of KH verb constitutes is also questionable from the SH point of view.

(i) iÉÆjÉEòÉ±É iÉEò {ɽÖÄþSÉiÉä {ɽÖÄþSÉiÉä ‡"É´ÉÉä{ÉɺÉxÉÉ EòÒ Eò<Ç "ÉÉJÉÉBÄ ‡xÉEò±É {Éc÷Ò +Éè®ú .........

In this case SH will use a compound verb ½þÉä VÉÉxÉÉ or ¤ÉxÉ VÉÉxÉÉ but not ‡xÉEò±É {Éc÷xÉÉ* Thus ......... ‡"É´ÉÉä{ÉɺÉxÉÉ EòÒ Eò<Ç "ÉÉJÉÉBÄ ½þÉä MɪÉÓ or ¤ÉxÉ MÉ<Ç*

(ii) ......... +Éè®ú ¦ÉÎCiÉ |ÉMÉÉfø ¤ÉxÉiÉÒ MɪÉÒ*
-- A. p. 172

Here SH will also use a compound verb, but not the one with ¤ÉxÉxÉxÉÉ as its first member. It will be ......... |ÉMÉÉfø ½þÉäiÉÒ MɪÉÒ*

(iii) ......... ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉ ½þ®ú |ÉEòÉ®ú ºÉä ‡´ÉVÉªÉ Eò®úxÉÉ ½þÒ +{ÉxÉÉ ‡VÉ´ÉxÉÉäqäù"ªÉ ºÉ¨ÉZÉiÉä lÉä .........
-- A. p. 209

In this case in place of ‡´ÉVÉªÉ Eò®úxÉÉ, SH use will be ‡´ÉVÉªÉ |ÉÉ{iÉ Eò®úxÉÉ* ‡´ÉVÉªÉ Eò®úxÉÉ is used in a structure in which the conquered is the victim, e.g., =ºÉxÉä ¦ÉÉ®úiÉ ¦ÉÉ®úiÉ EòÉä ‡¤ÉVÉªÉ ‡EòªÉÉ, but in the present structure, ‡´ÉVÉªÉ is a complement noun and therefore |ÉÉ{iÉ Eò®úxÉÉ is required. Thus ......... ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉ ½þ®ú |ÉEòÉ®ú ºÉä ‡´ÉVÉªÉ |ÉÉ{iÉ Eò®úxÉÉ ½þÒ +{ÉxÉÉ .........

(iv) <ºÉEäò "ÉɺÉxÉEòÉ±É ¨Éå ¨ÉÖMÉ±É ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ =zɇiÉ Eäò ‡"ÉJÉ®ú {É®ú {ɽÄþÖSÉ Eò®ú +´ÉxÉiÉ ½þÉäxÉä ±ÉMÉÉ*
-- A. p. 213

In this case KH uses a verb phrase +´ÉxÉiÉ ½þÉäxÉä ±ÉMÉÉ which is inappropriate from the point of view of SH use, which should be +´ÉxɇiÉ EòÒ +Éè®ú ¤ÉgøxÉä ±ÉMÉÉ* SH uses the noun +´ÉxɇiÉ while KH uses participle +´ÉxÉiÉ* Stylistically the entire sentence might be rephrased as "=zɇiÉ Eäò ‡"ÉJÉ®ú {É®ú {ɽÖÄþSÉÉ ½Öþ+É ¨ÉÖMÉ±É ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ <ºÉEäò "ÉɺÉxÉEòÉ±É ¨Éå +´ÉxɇiÉ EòÒ +Éä®ú ¤ÉgøxÉä ±ÉMÉÉ" or "=zɇiÉ Eäò ‡"ÉJÉ®ú {É®ú {ɽÖÄþSÉä ½ÖþB ¨ÉÖMÉ±É ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ EòÉ +´ÉxɇiÉ <ºÉEäò "ÉɺÉxÉEòÉ±É ¨Éå |ÉÉ®ú¨¦É/"ÉÖ°ü ½þÉä MɪÉÒ*

(v) ......... iɇ¨É±ÉxÉÉb÷ ºÉä "Éè´É¦ÉÎCiÉ ºÉɪÉxÉÉ Eäò ºÉÉlÉ-ºÉÉlÉ ´Éè¹hÉ´É-¦ÉÎCiÉ ºÉÉvÉxÉÉ EòÉ ‡´É"Éä¹É |ÉSÉÉ®ú ½þÉä SɱÉÉ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 190

Here an inceptive compound verb is needed. In SH it is expressed by a compound verb formed with ±ÉMÉxÉÉ* Thus SH will be ½þÉäxÉä ±ÉMÉÉ lÉÉ* If inceptive meaning is not intended and a state is to be referred to, SH will use ½þÉä MɪÉÉ lÉÉ* In no case ½þÉä SɱÉÉ lÉÉ will be used in SH as in KH here. Thus in SH this sentence should be "......... ´Éè¹hÉ´É-¦ÉÎCiÉ-ºÉÉvÉxÉÉ EòÉ ‡´É"Éä¹É |ÉSÉÉ®ú ½þÉä MɪÉÉ lÉÉ or ......... |ÉSÉÉ®ú ½þÉäxÉä ±ÉMÉÉ lÉÉ*

(vi) +{ÉxÉä PÉ®ú-¤ÉÉ®ú, ¨ÉɱÉ-+ºÉ´ÉɤÉ, iÉlÉÉ ¤É½Öþ-¤Éä‡]õªÉÉå EòÒ ®úIÉÉ EòÉ |É"xÉ ‡½þxnÖù+Éå Eäò ºÉɨÉxÉä ºÉnùÉ ‡xÉEò]õ ¤ÉxÉÉ ®ú½þiÉÉ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 214

The phrase ¤ÉxÉÉ ®ú½þiÉÉ lÉÉ is not appropriate according to SH. SH use would be .........®ú½þiÉÉ lÉÉ or ={ÉκlÉiÉ ®ú½þiÉÉ lÉÉ*

(vii) +Éè®ÆúMÉVÉä¤É xÉä ®úÉVªÉ EòÒ ´ÉÉMÉb÷Éä®ú +{ÉxÉä ½þÉlÉ ¨Éå ±ÉäiÉä ½þÒ xÉÞ"ÉÆºÉ iÉlÉÉ vɨÉÉÇxvÉ "ÉɺÉEò EòÒ xÉÒ‡iÉ vÉÉ䇹ÉiÉ EòÒ*
-- A. p. 213

Similar to the previous example KH also uses a Sanskrit past passive participle form with Eò®úxÉÉ which is not possible in SH. This sentence, if PÉÉ䇹ÉiÉ has to be used, will be in passive construction as ......... Eäò uùÉ®úÉ PÉÉ䇹ÉiÉ EòÒ MɪÉÒ, otherwise SH will use ......... "ÉɺÉxÉ EòÒ xÉÒ‡iÉ EòÒ PÉÉ䇹ÉiÉ EòÒ*

It may further be pointed out in SH that the derived actor form "ÉɺÉEò will be inappropriate in this collocation and "ÉɺÉxÉ EòÒ xÉÒ‡iÉ will be used. Stylistically the preferred sentence will be ......... vɨÉÉÇxvÉ xÉÒ‡iÉ EòÒ PÉÉä¹ÉhÉÉ EòÒ*

4.4. KH use of tense forms, tense aspect and mood is also different from SH. Although the hierarchies and subcategories are more or less the same, the specific distributions are different.

(i) <ºÉ ºÉɇ½þiªÉ ¨Éå ´ÉèvÉÒ-¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÉ °ü{É +‡vÉEò +Éè®ú ®úÉMÉÉxÉÖ®úÉMÉ-¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÉ Eò¨É |ÉEò]õ ½Öþ+É*
-- A. p. 67

KH uses only perfective form ½Öþ+É while SH demands a present perfective in this case ......... ®úÉMÉÉxÉÖ®úÉMÉ-¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÉ Eò¨É |ÉEò]õ ½Öþ+É ½èþ*

(ii) ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉÉå Eäò ®ú½þxÉ-ºÉ½þxÉ, ´Éä¹É-¦ÉɹÉÉ +ɇnù EòÒ ¤É½ÖþiÉ-ºÉÒ ¤ÉÉiÉÉå EòÉ ‡½þxnÚù VÉÒ´ÉxÉ ¨Éå ºÉ¨ÉÉ´Éä"É ½þÉä MɪÉÉ*
-- A. p. 214

In this also KH uses a perfective while SH use will be that of past perfective. Thus ......... ¤É½ÖþiÉ-ºÉÒ ¤ÉÉiÉÉå EòÉ ‡½þxnÚù-VÉÒ´ÉxÉ ¨Éå ºÉ¨ÉÉ´Éä"É ½þÉä MɪÉÉ lÉÉ*

(iii) ‡´É®ú"Éè´É ¦ÉCiÉ Eò‡´ÉªÉÉå xÉä xÉ Eäò´É±É ‡iÉ®úºÉ`ö xÉɪÉxɨÉÉ®úÉå EòÒ VÉҴɇxɪÉÉÄ EòzÉc÷ ¨Éå ‡±ÉJÉÒ ½éþ ¤ÉαEò '{É䇮úªÉ {ÉÖ®úÉhɨÉÂ' EòÉ +xÉÖEò®úhÉ Eò®úiÉä ½ÖþB ‡´É®ú"Éè´É ¦ÉCiÉÉå EòÒ ‡VɴɇxɪÉÉÄ ‡±ÉJÉxÉä EòÒ {ɇ®ú{ÉÉ]õÒ ¦ÉÒ SɱÉɪÉÒ ½éþ*
-- A. p. 207

Here a statement of fact located in the past is intended and not a statement with a terminal temporal point, hence use of perfective in ‡±ÉJÉÒ ½éþ and in SɱÉɪÉÒ ½éþ is not needed from SH point of view. According to SH use this will be as ......... EòÒ VÉҴɇxɪÉÉÄ EòzÉc÷ ¨Éå ‡±ÉJÉÓ ¤ÉαEò ......... VÉɴɇxɪÉÉÄ ‡±ÉJÉxÉä EòÒ {ɇ®ú{ÉÉ]õÒ ¦ÉÒ SɱÉɪÉÒ*

The above three examples and other example of this kind show that KH does not distinguish between perfective on one hand and the past perfective and present perfective on the other.

(iv) iÉÖ¨½þÉ®úÉ ‡nùªÉÉ nÚùvÉ ¦ÉÒ ¨Éé {ÉÚ®úÉ {ÉÒ xɽþÓ ºÉEòÉ ½ÚÄþ*
-- A. p. 282

SH needs here imperfect form of the verb to convey the abilitative meaning and not a present perfect which indicates a temporal terminal. Thus SH sentence will be ......... ¨Éé {ÉÚ®úÉ {ÉÒ xɽþÓ {ÉÉiÉÉ or ºÉEòiÉÉ*

4.5 KH does not follow the same rules of tense sequencing in different clauses in a sentence as SH does; for instance,

(i) VÉ¤É <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú ºÉɨÉɇVÉEò VÉÒ´ÉxÉ ¨Éå =UÖÆôJɱÉiÉÉ EòÉ iÉÉhb÷´É ½þÉä ®ú½þÉ lÉÉ iÉ¤É ‡´ÉVÉäiÉÉ ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉÉå EòÒ ºÉɨÉɇVÉEò ´ªÉ´ÉºlÉÉ EòÉ ¦ÉÒ =ºÉ {É®ú |ɦÉÉ´É {Éc÷xÉä ±ÉMÉÉ*
-- A. p. 214

The tense sequencing is ......... VÉ¤É ......... iÉÉhb÷´É ½þÉä ®ú½þÉ lÉÉ iÉ¤É ......... {Éc÷xÉä ±ÉMÉÉ* SH will not use a compound verb of inceptive type but will use a perfect in the principle clause. Thus SH use will be VÉ¤É ......... iÉÉhb÷´É ½þÉä ®ú½þÉ lÉÉ iÉ¤É ......... =ºÉ {É®ú |ɦÉÉ´É {Éc÷É*

(ii) ‡EòºÉÒ Eäò PÉ®ú ¨Éå ºÉÉäiÉÉ ®ú½þiÉÉ ½èþ iÉÉä ‡EòºÉÒ Eäò ªÉ½Äþ xÉCJÉxÉ SÉÖ®ú Eò®ú JÉÉ ±ÉäiÉÉ ½èþ* ªÉ‡nù ‡EòºÉÒ Eäò ªÉ½þÉÄ ®ú‡iÉ EÂòÒb÷É Eò®úiÉÉ ½èþ iÉÉä +Éè®ú ‡EòºÉÒ Eäò ªÉ½þÉÄ MÉånù JÉä±ÉiÉÉ ®ú½þiÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 247

In this example in four clauses the first and the last clauses use frequentative verb forms ºÉÉäiÉÉ ®ú½þiÉÉ ½èþ and JÉä±ÉiÉÉ ®ú½þiÉÉ ½èþ, while the second one uses the present imperfect of the compound verb JÉÉ ±ÉäxÉÉ and the third GòÒb÷É Eò®úxÉÉ* In SH all clauses in such a sequence will use the same tense aspect and / or mood, thus here we would use ºÉÉäiÉÉ ½èþ, JÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ, GòÒb÷É ½èþ and JÉä±ÉiÉÉ ½èþ* KH use does not maintain tense aspect sequencing in the same manner as SH.

(iii) ªÉt‡{É ‡"É´É"É®úhÉÉå Eäò ¤É½ÖþiÉ-ºÉä ´ÉSÉxÉ MÉäªÉ-°ü{É ¨Éå ‡±ÉJÉä ½ÚþB ½éþ iÉÉä ¦ÉÒ "ÉɺjÉÒªÉ ºÉÆMÉÒiÉ EòÉ EòÉä<Ç ‡xÉÎ"SÉiÉ |ɪÉÉäMÉ xɽþÓ ½Öþ+É lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 153

In this case the subordinate clause has the verb in present perfect and the principle clause in past perfect. SH does not use this kind of tense aspect sequencing. Both the verb phrases have to be in the same tense-aspect. Here both the verb phrases need to be in present perfect. Thus ......... MÉäªÉ °ü{É ¨Éå ‡±ÉJÉä ½ÖþB ½éþ ......... |ɪÉÉäMÉ xɽþÓ ½Öþ+É ½èþ*

(iv) ±Éä‡EòxÉ {ÉÖ±ÉEäò‡"É (nùÉä) Eäò ={É®úÉxiÉ ‡´ÉVɪÉxÉMÉ®ú ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ EòÒ ºlÉÉ{ÉxÉÉ iÉEò BäºÉÉ EòÉä<Ç "ÉÎCiÉ"ÉɱÉÒ ®úÉVÉÉ xɽþÓ ½Öþ+É VÉÉä EòxÉÉÇ]õEò EòÒ VÉxÉiÉÉ EòÉä BEò "ÉɺÉxÉ ºÉÚjÉ ¨Éå ¤ÉÉÄvÉ ºÉEäò*
-- A. p. 222

In this case also the relative clause needs a subjunctive mood and therefore the imperfect form of the verb. Thus SH will use ¤ÉÉÄvÉ ºÉEòiÉÉ and not ¤ÉÉÄvÉ ºÉEäò as in KH.

4.6. KH often uses an active construction where SH will use a passive one. In such cases KH seems to use a participle verb ½þÉäxÉÉ* for example,

(i) ªÉä VÉɇiÉ Eäò +ÆiªÉVÉ lÉä +Éè®ú <xÉEòÉ VÉx¨ÉºlÉÉxÉ =®äúªÉÚ®ú xÉɨÉEò MÉÉÄ´É lÉÉ* ºÉÆMÉÒiÉ Eäò ¨É¨ÉÇYÉ ½þÉäxÉä Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ MÉÖ¯û{É®ú¨{É®úÉ Eäò +xÉÖºÉÉ®ú '¦ÉMÉ´ÉnÂùMÉÉxÉ-‡´É¹ÉªÉ-ºÉÉ´ÉǦÉÉè¨É' xÉɨÉEò {Énù´ÉÒ ºÉä +ɦÉÚ‡¹ÉiÉ lÉä*
-- A. p. 198

SH will use a passive construction +¦ÉÚ‡¹ÉiÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ rather than +ɦÉÚ‡¹ÉiÉ lÉä* Sentence also needs a pronominal subject in SH, which is missing in KH. Thus according to SH this sentence should be ......... ºÉÆMÉÒiÉ Eäò ......... MÉÖ¯û{É®ú¨{É®úÉ Eäò +xÉÖºÉÉ®ú =x½åþ '¦ÉMÉ´ÉnÚù-MÉÉxÉ-‡´É¹ÉªÉ-ºÉÉ´ÉǦÉÉè¨É' xÉɨÉEò {Énù´ÉÒ ºÉä +ɦÉÚ‡¹ÉiÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ*

(ii) ´Éä VÉx¨É ºÉä ‡½þxnÚù ½þÉäEò®ú ¦ÉÒ ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉ {ɇ®ú´ÉÉ®ú ¨Éå {Éɇ±ÉiÉ ½ÖþB lÉä +Éè®ú .........
-- A. p. 218-219

In KH it seems frequent to use a past passive participle with ½þÉäxÉÉ but in SH such use is not common. Here SH will use a passive construction ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉ {ɇ®ú´ÉÉ®ú ¨Éå {ÉɱÉä MɪÉä lÉä or intransitive construction ......... ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉ {ɇ®ú´ÉÉ®ú ¨Éå {ɱÉä lÉä or even a noun {ÉɱÉxÉ-{ÉÉä¹ÉhÉ can be used. In the case this sentence will be VÉx¨É ºÉä ‡½þxnÚù ½þÉäEò®ú ¦ÉÒ =xÉEòÉ {ÉɱÉxÉ-{ÉÉä¹ÉhÉ ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉ {ɇ®ú´ÉÉ®ú ¨Éå ½Öþ+É lÉÉ*

(iii) ªÉt‡{É ‡"É´É"É®úhÉÉå Eäò ¤É½ÖþiÉ-ºÉä ´ÉSÉxÉ MÉäªÉ °ü{É ¨Éå ‡±ÉJÉä ½ÖþB ½éþ .........
-- A. p. 153

Here the appropriate operator is VÉÉxÉÉ not ½þÉäxÉÉ and thus SH will use a passive construction ‡±ÉJÉÉ VÉÉxÉÉ* According to SH this would be as follows ......... MÉäªÉ °ü{É ¨Éå ‡±ÉJÉä MɪÉä ½éþ*

It is also possible in this case, in SH, not to use compound verb at all, but use the simple verb form, then this sentence will be ......... MÉäªÉ °ü{É ¨Éå ½éþ*

(iv) ªÉ½þ ¤ÉiÉɪÉÉ ½èþ ‡Eò ‡´É¹hÉÖº´ÉɨÉÒ xÉä ¤É½ÖþiÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ iÉEò ¦ÉÎCiÉ ¨ÉÉMÉÇ EòÉ |ÉSÉÉ®ú ‡EòªÉÉ lÉÉ .........
-- A. p. 35

In place of ´É½þ ¤ÉiÉɪÉÉ ½èþ, SH will use a passive verb phrase ªÉ½þ ¤ÉiÉɪÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ or ªÉ½þ ¤ÉiÉɪÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ or ªÉ½þ Eò½þÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ* (These are the stylistic variations in SH). Active construction is used in SH. It may be mentioned that such a construction will use proximate demonstrative and not a non-proximate in SH.

(v) {ÉÖ®úxnù®únùÉºÉ Eäò nÚùºÉ®äú BEò {Énù ¨Éå MÉÉä‡{ɪÉÉå uùÉ®úÉ ZÉֱɴÉÉxÉä EòÉ ´ÉhÉÇxÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 35

In this case KH uses the verbal noun of a causative form i.e. ZÉֱɴÉÉxÉÉ* SH will use a verbal noun or a morphological passive i.e., ZÉÖ±ÉɪÉä VÉÉxÉä EòÉ ´ÉhÉÇxÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ* SH can also use causative ZÉÖ±ÉÉxÉÉ but not a second causative ZÉֱɴÉÉxÉÉ as in KH In this case this will be ......... MÉÉä‡{ɪÉÉå uùÉ®úÉ ZÉÖ±ÉÉxÉä EòÉ ´ÉhÉÇxÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ*

4.7. KH differs from SH in the structure and use of the participle form of various kinds.

xÉұɴÉhÉÇ {ɇ®úvÉÉxÉ {ɽþxÉä ¤ÉɱÉEò EòÉä ¤ÉÖ±ÉÉEò®ú ‡{ɱÉÉxÉä EòÉ EèòºÉÉ {ÉÖhªÉ {ÉɪÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 238

SH participle phrase would be xÉұɴÉhÉÇ {ɇ®úvÉÉxÉ {ɽþxÉä ½ÖþB ¤ÉɱÉEò EòÉä .........

4.8. KH deletes the participle marker Eò®ú where SH would not. For example:

(i) =rù´É Eò½þiÉä ½éþ ‡Eò nùÒxÉ ½þÉä ½þÉ®ú ¨ÉÉxÉ Eò®ú ¨Éå ±ÉÉè]õ +ɪÉÉ ½ÚÄþ .........
-- A. p. 255

Delection of Eò®ú after ½þÉä will not be done in SH. It may also be mentioned here that if the subject of the main clause as well as of the participle clause(s) is indentical, it is placed before the participle clauses in SH and not after as in KH as per example above. Thus the SH equivalent sentence will be as follows: =rù´É Eò½þiÉä ½éþ ‡Eò nùÒxÉ ½þÉäEò®ú, ½þÉ®ú¨ÉÉxÉ Eò®ú ¨Éé ±ÉÉè]õ +ɪÉÉ ½ÚÄþ .........

(ii) ¨Éå iÉÉä nùÒxÉ, nÖù‡JÉiÉ, nÖù¤ÉÇ±É ½þÉä iÉÖ¨½þÉ®äú uùÉ®ú {É®ú iÉÖ¨½þÉ®úÉ xÉÉ¨É ®ú]õiÉä ½ÖþB {Éc÷É ½ÚÄþ*
-- A. p. 256

Here again SH needs participle phrase ......... nÖù¤ÉÇ±É ½þÉäEò®ú iÉÖ¨½þÉ®äú uùÉ®úÉ {É®úü ......... It may also be mentioned here that SH will not use Sanskrit participle form. nÖù‡JÉiÉ according SH to should be nÖùJÉÒ an adjectival form. SH also needs a connector +Éè®ú. Thus this sentence will be as ¨Éé iÉÉä nùÒxÉ, nÖùJÉÒ +Éè®ú nÖù¤ÉÇ±É ½þÉäEò®ú iÉÖ¨½þÉ®äú uùÉ®úÉ {É®ú ......... in SH.

4.9. KH sometimes uses Eò®ú where SH will not.

(i) ......... ={Énäù"É ºÉä ½þ¨ÉÉ®äú +ÆiÉ&Eò®úhÉ EòÒ {ɇ®ú"ÉÖ‡rù ½Öþ<Ç ½þÉä +Éè®ú +Éi¨ÉÉ Eäò ¤ÉÆvÉxÉ +{ÉxÉä +É{É ]Úõ]õEò®ú ¨ÉÖCiÉɴɺlÉÉ |ÉÉ{iÉ ½Öþ<Ç ½þÉä*
-- A. p. 102

In this case according to SH the use of the perfect participle phrase is superfluous and the SH usage will be only verbal noun; .........]Úõ]õxÉä ºÉä ¨ÉÖCiÉɴɺlÉÉ |ÉÉ{iÉ ½Öþ<Ç ½þÉä*

(ii) ®úÉxÉÒ {ÉÎnÂù¨ÉxÉÒ EòÉ ºÉèEòb÷Éå ®úÉVÉ{ÉÚiÉɇxɪÉÉå Eäò ºÉÉlÉ VÉÉè½þ®ú EòÒ +ÉMÉ ¨Éå VɱÉEò®ú ¨É®úxÉÉ ¦ÉÉ®úiÉ Eäò .........
-- A. p. 211
In this case also, according to SH, participle is superfluous. SH usage is ......... VÉ±É ¨É®úxÉÉ, ¦ÉÉ®úiÉ Eäò .........

(iii) ......... ºÉ¦ÉÒ <ÎxpùªÉÉå ¨Éå ´ÉºÉEò®ú Eäò ´Éä ‡´É‡´ÉvÉ EòɪÉÇ Eò®ú´ÉɱÉä ½éþ*
-- A. p. 149

In this case a repetition of the perfect form is superfluous. The sentence, in SH, will be as ......... ¤ÉºÉEò®ú ´Éä ‡´É‡´ÉvÉ EòɪÉÇ Eò®ú´ÉɱÉä ½éþ*

4.10. KH differs also in the use of intensifiers. KH prefers the use of ®ú½þxÉÉ in place of ½þÉäxÉÉ, e.g.,
(i) ......... =xÉEòÉ EòÉä<Ç +±ÉMÉ ½þÒ ºÉ¨|ÉnùÉªÉ ®ú½þÉ lÉÉ ªÉ½þ iÉÉä SÉSÉÉÇ EòÉ ‡´É¹ÉªÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 54

SH will not use ®ú½þxÉÉ at all and the sentence will be ......... ºÉ¨|ÉnùÉªÉ lÉÉ ªÉ½þ iÉÉä .........* Another alternte possibility is to say ......... ºÉ¨|ÉnùÉªÉ ®ú½þÉ ½þÉäMÉÉ ªÉ½þ iÉÉä ......... i.e., dubitative use in place of ......... ®ú½þÉ lÉÉ.........

(ii) ¸ÉÒnùɨÉÉ Eäò <iÉxÉÉ Eò½þxÉä {É®ú ºÉ¤É ºÉJÉÉ JÉä±É UôÉäc÷ Eò®ú ±Éä]äõ ®ú½þ MɪÉä*
-- A. p. 250

The use of intensifier ®ú½þxÉÉ here is again a KH peculiarity. SH use will be ......... UôÉäc÷Eò®ú ±Éä]õ MɪÉä*

(iii) ......... iÉÉä ¦ÉÒ ®úÉVªÉ +Éè®ú +‡vÉEòÉ®ú Eäò ±ÉÉä¦É ºÉä ºÉnùÉ +É{ÉºÉ ¨Éå ±Éc÷iÉä ®ú½äþ*
-- A. p. 222

KH uses a perfective in the frequentative verb phrase and does not distinguish between a perfective and an imperfective in such cases. SH will use ±Éc÷iÉä ®ú½þiÉä lÉä rather than ±Éc÷iÉä ®ú½äþ to describe a duration for frequentative action rather than terminal point of time.

(iv) VɽþÉćMÉ®ú +Éè®ú "ÉɽþVɽþÉÄ EòÉ "ÉɺÉxÉ EòÉ±É ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ Eäò +¦ªÉÖnùªÉ Eäò +xÉÖEÚò±É xɽþÓ ®ú½þÉ*
-- A. p. 212

In this case KH uses noun ®ú½þxÉÉ where SH uses noun ½þÉäxÉÉ. KH does not seem to distinguish between two structures.

5. Clause Structure

The structure of the relative clauses and the order of constituents in the relative clause as well as the principle clause differs in KH as compared to SH.

5. 1 (i) SÉɽäþ vÉĘ́ÉEò OÉxlÉ ½þÉä SÉɽäþ ±ÉÉè‡EòEò OÉxlÉ, Eò½þÓ ¦ÉÒ BäºÉÒ ¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÉ ‡xÉ°ü{ÉhÉ xɽþÓ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ VÉèºÉÉ ‡Eò ´Éè‡nùEò EòÉ´ªÉÉå ¨Éå ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 187

In this case the co-ordinate of VÉèºÉÉ has been omitted, instead it has been used as an adjective of ¦ÉÎCiÉ, i.e., ......... Eò½þÓ ¦ÉÒ BäºÉÒ ¦ÉÎCiÉ .........… The corelative BäºÉÉ has to be a modifier of ‡xÉ°ü{ÉhÉ and the entire sentence to be rephrased as: ......... Eò½þÓ ¦ÉÒ ¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÉ BäºÉÉ ‡xÉ°ü{ÉhÉ xɽþÓ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ VÉèºÉÉ ‡Eò ´Éè‡nùEò .........

(ii) VÉèºÉÉ ‡Eò >ð{É®ú Eò½þÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ ‡Eò ‡xÉMÉÖLJhÉ ªÉÉ ºÉxiÉÉå uùÉ®úÉ ‡VÉºÉ ¦ÉÉÎCiÉ EòÒ ´ªÉÆVÉxÉÉ ½Öþ<Ç ‡VɺÉEäò ‡±ÉB ‡EòºÉÒ "ÉɺjÉ-OÉxlÉ EòÉ +ÉvÉÉ®ú xɽþÓ lÉÉ +Éè®ú ºÉMÉÖhÉvÉÉ®ú Eäò ¦ÉCiÉÉå xÉä ‡VÉºÉ ¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÉ |ÉSÉÉ®ú ‡EòªÉÉ ´É½þ |ÉÉSÉÒxÉ ´Éè‡nùEò-OÉxlÉÉå {É®ú +ÉvÉɇ®úiÉ lÉÒ*
-- A. p. 221

Here instead of a relative and a paired co-relative the author used relative forms ‡VÉºÉ and ‡VɺÉEäò which is deviant from the point of view of SH. It should be as follows ......... ‡VÉºÉ ¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÒ ´ªÉÆVÉxÉ ½Öþ<Ç =ºÉEäò ‡±ÉB ......... It is worth noting that in the coordinate sentence, the author has used paired relative cordative ‡VÉºÉ and ´É½þ*

(iii) <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú VÉ¤É ½þɺÉÉäx¨ÉÖJÉ ¤ÉÉèrù vɨÉÇ VÉxÉiÉÉ EòÉ {ÉlÉ |Énù"ÉÇEò ¤ÉxÉxÉä EòÒ "ÉÎCiÉ JÉÉä ¤Éè`öÉ lÉÉ iÉ¤É =kÉ®úÉ{ÉlÉ ¨Éå xÉÉlÉ ºÉ¨|ÉnùɪÉ, "ÉÉCiɨÉiÉ VÉèºÉä "Éè´É¨ÉiÉ Eäò ‡´É¦ÉänùÉå EòÉ |ÉɤɱªÉ ½Öþ+É*
-- A. p. 215

This is a relative clause structure of VÉ¤É iÉ¤É type. in SH VÉ¤É clause uses iÉÉä =ºÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ or iÉ¤É to indicate the co-occurrence by an emphatic particle. Here also SH will use iɦÉÒ or =ºÉÚ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ * Thus according to SH the above sentence can be rephrased as follows: <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú VÉ¤É ½þºÉÉäx¨ÉÖJÉ ¤ÉÉèrùvɨÉÇ ......... iɦÉÒ or =ºÉÒ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ =kÉ®úÉ{ÉlÉ ¨Éå xÉÉlÉ .........

5. 2. Sometimes the constituents which should form part of the relative clause are used in the correlative clause in KH.

(i) +{ÉxÉä ºÉ¤É Eò¹]õ +Éè®ú º´ÉÉlÉÇ EòÉä ¦ÉÖ±ÉÉEò®ú ºÉxiÉÉxÉ EòÒ ‡xÉ®úxiÉ®ú ºÉä´ÉÉ ¨Éå EòÉèxÉ Bä ¨ÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ VÉÉå +{ÉxÉä ºÉ´ÉǺ´É EòÉä º´ÉªÉÆ ½þÒ xªÉÉäUôÉ´É®ú xɽþÓ Eò®úiÉÒ*
-- A. p. 232

The constituents +{ÉxÉä ºÉ¤É Eò¹]õ +Éè®ú º´ÉÉlÉÇ EòÉä ¦ÉÖ±ÉÉEò®ú ºÉxiÉÉxÉ EòÒ ‡xÉ®ÆúiÉ®ú ºÉä´ÉÉ ¨Éå which is a constituent of correlative clause, here should be part of relative clause. The entire sentence, should be rephrased as - BäºÉÒ EòÉèxÉ ºÉÒ ¨ÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ VÉÉä +{ÉxÉä ºÉ¤É Eò¹]õ +Éè®ú º´ÉÉlÉÇ EòÉä ¦ÉÖ±ÉÉEò®ú ºÉxiÉÉxÉ EòÒ ‡xÉ®úxiÉ®ú ºÉä´ÉÉ ¨Éå +{ÉxÉä ºÉ´ÉǺ´É ......... * The following two points should also be noted.

(i) The reflexive º´ÉªÉÆ ½þÒ is superfluous; after the use of the reflexive in the phrase +{ÉxÉä ºÉ´ÉǺ´É*

(ii) The order of the modifier of ¨ÉÉiÉÉ in KH are interrogative adjctive + manner adjective + noun. In SH the order is manner adjective + interrogative adjective + noun.

5. 3. KH also differs from SH in that it uses a relative clause where SH will use participle phrase and vice versa. The following two examples will illustrate this characteristic.

(i) iÉÖ¨½þÉ®äú PÉ®ú Eäò ¤ÉUôc÷Éå EòÉä VÉÉä JÉƦÉä ºÉä ¤ÉÆvÉä lÉä CªÉÉ ªÉ½þ JÉÉä±É ºÉEòiÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 243

Here SH will use a participle phrase JÉƦÉä ºÉä ¤ÉÆvÉä iÉÖ¨½þÉ®äú PÉ®ú Eäò ¤ÉUôc÷Éå EòÉä CªÉÉ ªÉ½þ JÉÉä±É ºÉEòiÉÉ ½èþ and it is not expressed by a relative clause VÉÉä JÉƦÉä ºÉä ¤ÉÆvÉä lÉä .........

(ii) ±ÉÉäMÉ iÉÉä ºÉnùÉ EÖò±É EòÒ ¤ÉÉiÉ Eò®úiÉä ½éþ, ¤ÉiÉÉ+Éä ºÉiªÉ ºÉÖJÉ {ÉɪÉä ½ÖþB ºÉVVÉxÉÉå EòÉ EòÉèxÉ EÖò±É ½èþ? .........
-- A. p. 170

In this sentence a participle phrase ºÉiªÉ ºÉÖJÉ {ÉɪÉä ½ÖþB has been used as modifier of ºÉVVÉxÉÉå * SH will use a relative clause and not a participle phrase. Thus the sentence can be rephrased as follows.

......... =xÉ EòÉ EòÉèxÉ-ºÉÉ EÖò±É ½èþ (or ´Éä ‡EòºÉ EÖò±É Eäò ½éþ) VÉÉä ºÉiªÉ ºÉÖJÉ {ÉÉ SÉÖEäò ½éþ or =xÉEòÉ EòÉèxÉ ºÉÉ EÖò±É ½èþ ‡VÉx½þÉåxÉä ºÉiªÉ ºÉÖJÉ {ÉÉ ‡±ÉªÉÉ ½èþ*

6. Post Positions

In SH a larger number of case relations are expressed by the use of post positions occurring after the oblique form of the noun or pronoun. Moreover the occurrence of post position is also determined by the verb phrase. In KH the use of these postpositions differs from SH.

6. 1. In SH a noun phrase followed by EòÉä requires an oblique form of the genitive case post position úÖ occurring earlier in the phrase. In KH this does not seem to be true. E.g.
ºÉƺEòÉ®úÉå EòÒ +lÉǽþÒxÉMÉÖ±ÉɨÉÒ, +Ævɇ´É…ÉɺÉ, {ÉÉJÉhb÷, VÉÉiÉ{ÉÉÆiÉ EòÉ ¦Éänù-¦ÉÉ´É +ÉnùÒ EòÉä =x½þÉåxÉä VɽþÉÄ ¦ÉÒ näùJÉÉ .........

-- A. p. 219
In SH it will be ......... VÉÉiÉ{ÉÉÄiÉ Eäò ¦Éänù¦ÉÉ´É +ɇnù EòÉä .........

6.2. KH also differs in the use of accusative dative case postpositions, e.g.,

(i) ¨ÉxÉÖ¹ªÉ Eäò ºÉÉ®äú ºÉÆEò±{ÉÉå EòÒ |Éä®úhÉÉ {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ ºÉä ‡¨É±ÉiÉÒ ½éþ*
-- A. p. 73

In SH this sentence should read as follows, ¨ÉxÉÖ¹ªÉ EòÉä ºÉÉ®äú ºÉÆ{ɱ{ÉÉå EòÒ |Éä®úhÉÉ .................................... as dative case marker. KH sentence has a noun phrase with |Éä®úhÉÉ as head noun and ¨ÉxÉÖ¹ªÉ Eäò and ºÉÉ®äú ºÉÆ{ɱ{ÉÉå EòÒ as genitive constituents, thereby having no indirect object constituent in the sentence which is essential according to SH.

(ii) ............ MÉWÉÉxÉÒ Eò ºÉÖ±ÉiÉÉxÉÉå Eò ½þ¨É±ÉÉå EòÒ ±É½þ®äú ¦ÉÉ®úiɴɹÉÇ {É®ú ´ÉÉ®ú¨¤ÉÉ®ú SɱÉxÉ ±ÉMÉÒ lÉÒ, ‡VÉxÉEòÉä ®úÉäEòxÉä EòÒ ‡½þxnÚù ®úÉVÉÉ+Éå ¨ÉåÆ ‡xÉ®úxiÉ®ú ËSÉiÉÉ ±ÉMÉÒ ®ú½þiÉÒ lÉÒ*
-- A. p. 208

In SH the deep structure subject is to be expressed by a EòÉä construction and the sentence should be ............ ‡VÉxÉEòÉä ®úÉäEòxÉä EòÒ ‡½þxnÚù ®úÉVÉÉ+Éå EòÉä ‡xÉ®úxiÉ®ú ËSÉiÉÉ ............ KH prefers a locative marker ¨Éå

(iii) =ºÉxÉä +{ÉxÉä ®úÉVªÉ ¨Éå ºÉɇ½þiªÉ iÉlÉÉ +xªÉ ±É‡±ÉiÉ Eò±ÉÉ+Éå Eäò ‡±ÉB |ÉÉäiºÉɽþxÉ ¦ÉÒ ‡nùªÉÉ*

If KH sentence is interpreted as a subject dative Verb, the use of dative is inappropriate. Sentence in this construction requires an object in SH. The SH sentence will be as follows: ............ ±É‡±ÉiÉ Eò±ÉÉ+Éå EòÉä |ÉÉäiºÉɽþxÉ ¦ÉÒ ‡nùªÉÉ*

(iv) KH uses accusative and dative forms interchangeable. In the following example an accusative form is used where SH uses a dative.

|ÉVÉÉ xÉä +ºÉ½þÉªÉ ½þÉäEò®ú ®úÉVÉxÉè‡iÉEò MÉÖ±ÉɨÉÒ EòÉä º´ÉÒEòÉ®ú Eò®ú ‡±ÉªÉÉ lÉÉ iÉÉä ¦ÉÒ =ºÉä +Éi¨ÉÉMÉÉè®ú´É Eäò ºÉÉlÉ VÉÒxÉÉ ºÉ¨¦É´É xɽþÓ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 214

In SH this sentence will be ............ =ºÉEäò ‡±ÉB +Éi¨ÉMÉÉè®ú´É Eäò ºÉÉlÉ VÉÒxÉÉ ............

(v) {É®ú VÉMÉzÉÉlÉnùÉºÉ xÉä =ºÉEäò ªÉ½þÉÄ ¦ÉÉäVÉxÉ Eò®úxÉÉ +{ÉxÉä MÉÉè®ú´É Eäò ‡±ÉB Eò¨É ºÉ¨ÉZÉÉ
-- A. p. 177

Here the use of Eäò ‡±ÉB the dative postposition in the phrase Eäò ‡±ÉB Eò¨É ºÉ¨ÉZÉxÉÉ is at variance with SH. In SH not only Eäò ‡±ÉB but the entire phrase will be expressed differently. In SH it could be ............ +{ÉxÉä MÉÉè®ú´É Eäò +xÉÖEÚò±É xÉ ºÉ¨ÉZÉÉ*

(vi) Sometimes the dative case marker postposition is completely omitted. e.g.

(i) ............ näù´ÉiÉÉ+Éå Eäò ‡½þiÉ iÉÖ¨ÉxÉä ¨Éxnù®ú{É´ÉÇiÉ EòÉä =`öÉ ‡±ÉªÉÉ ............
-- A. p. 236

Here the head noun ‡½þiÉ of the noun phrase näù´ÉiÉÉ+Éå Eäò ‡½þiÉ is in dative case and postposition Eäò ‡±ÉB is needed to express the case relation. The SH sentence here will be ............ näù´ÉiÉÉ+Éå Eäò ‡½þiÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB ¨Éxnù®ú {É´ÉÇiÉ (EòÉä) =`öÉ ‡±ÉªÉÉ*

Other examples of the deletion of postposition Eäò ‡±ÉB are:

(ii) ............ ºÉÉäxÉä ºÉä ºÉÖxnù®ú ¤ÉSSÉÉå EòÉä ±Éä VÉÉxÉä +ɪÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 244
(iii) ............ ®úÉäxÉä ´ÉɱÉä ¤ÉSSÉÉå EòÉä {ÉEòc÷ ±Éä VÉÉxÉä +ɪÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 244
(iv) ............ =ºÉä ºÉÖ±ÉÉxÉä ±ÉÉä®úÒ MÉÉiÉÒ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 239

In examples (ii) and (iii) above the phrases ±Éä VÉÉxÉä and in (iv) the phrase ºÉÖ±ÉÉxÉä need postposition Eäò ‡±ÉB in SH. KH also seems to alternatively use Eäò ‡±ÉB under such situations. E.g.

............ {ÉÖ®úxnù®ú ‡´É_ö±É Eäò {ÉÉºÉ ±Éä VÉÉxÉä Eäò ‡±ÉB ¤Éè`öÉ ½Öþ+É ½èþ*
-- A. p. 244

In SH the use of Eäò ‡±ÉB is obligatory; in KH it seems to be optional.

6.3. KH uses instrumental postposition uùÉ®úÉ for SH locative postposition ´Öë e.g.

............ <ºÉ ¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÉ {É®ú¨ÉÉäVV´É±É |ÉEòÉ"É ‡´ÉGò¨É EòÒ 17¾Öà "ÉiÉɤnùÒ Eäò {ÉÚ´ÉÉÇvÉÇ ¨Éå MÉÉ亴ÉɨÉÒ VÉÒ EòÒ ´ÉÉhÉÒ uùÉ®úÉ º¡Öò‡®úiÉ ½Öþ+É*
-- A. p. 62

In SH the usage will be ............ MÉÉ亴ÉɨÉÒ VÉÒ EòÒ ´ÉÉhÉÒ ¨Éå ............; º¡Öò‡®úiÉ is also peculiar usage in SH. In SH this may be replaced by º¡Öò‡]õiÉ of by some such lexicon. Thus SH use will be ............ MÉÉ亴ÉɨÉÒ VÉÒ EòÒ ´ÉÉhÉÒ ¨Éå º¡Öò‡]õiÉ ½Öþ+É*

6.4. (i) KH uses a similar postposition iÉEò where SH will use a locative ¯Ö¸ü e.g.,

............ ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉ ®úÉVªÉ +{ÉxÉä ´Éè¦É´É Eäò +iªÉÖSSÉ ‡"ÉJÉ®ú iÉEò {ɽÖÄþSÉ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 216
SH usage will be ............ +iªÉÖSSÉ ‡"ÉJÉ®ú {É®ú {ɽÖÄþSÉ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ*

(ii) Instead of locative postposition ¨Éå KH uses the post position ºÉä e.g.

............ +Éè®ú ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ EòÒ ¦ÉÎCiÉ ºÉä ‡´É¼´É±É ½þÉäEò®ú ¨ÉvÉÖ®ú ¨ÉvÉÖ®ú MÉÉiÉä ®ú½þiÉä lÉä*
-- A. p. 198
SH use will be ............ ¦ÉÎCiÉ ¨Éå ‡´É¼´É±É ½þÉäEò®ú ............


(iii) ºÉ¤É +Éi¨ÉÉB ¨É±É Eäò {ÉÉ"É (+ÉhÉ´É ¨É±É, ¨ÉɪÉɨɱÉ, EòĘ́ÉEò ¨É±É) ºÉä ¤ÉÆnùÒ ½þÉä {É"ÉÖ ¤ÉxÉ MɪÉÒ ½éþ*............
-- A. p. 104
SH use will be ............ {ÉÉ"É ¨Éå ¤ÉÆnùÒ ............

(iv) ............ {É®úºjÉÒ ºÉä ¨ÉÉ䇽þiÉ xÉ ½þÉäxÉÉ, ............
-- A. p. 187

Here again the SH uses a locative postposition {É®ú not ºÉä postposition. SH ¨ÉÉ䇽þiÉ ½þÉäxÉÉ collocates with the object followed by {É®ú*

6.4.1. Even when post-positions expressing locative case relations are used, KH differs in the selection of the particular post-position in comparison to SH.

(i) ´ÉÒ®ú"Éè´É ¨ÉiÉ +{ÉxÉä ºÉÆPÉ]õxÉ iÉlÉÉ ºÉ¨ÉÉVÉ-ºÉÖvÉÉ®ú ºÉƤÉxvÉÒ ‡´ÉSÉÉ®úÉå Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ EòxÉÉÇ]õEò Eäò +xnù®ú Mɽþ®úÉ =iÉ®úÉ*
-- A. p. 141

SH does not use Eäò +Ænù®ú for expressing a locative relationship other than of putting of something within something physically, which still retains its own entity. Thus we cannot say nùÉ±É Eäò +xnù®ú xɨÉEò ½èþ but nùÉ±É ¨Éå xɨÉEò ½èþ because salt does not retain its physically entity but get diluted in nùɱÉ*

In the above example SH will use ¨Éå and not Eäò +Æxnù®ú* KH does not make this distinction and uses ¨Éå and Eäò +xnù®ú in free variation.

The same is the case about the KH use of Eäò +xnù®ú in the following example where SH will use xÉå*

(ii) ´ÉÒ®ú"ÉÉè´É Eäò +xnù®ú ¤ÉºÉ´É iÉlÉÉ =ºÉEäò ºÉ¨ÉEòɱÉÒxÉ ¦ÉCiÉÉå ¨Éå VÉÉä ±ÉÉäEò Eò±ªÉÉhÉEòÉ®úÒ, =nùÉ®ú, ¦ÉÉ´ÉxÉÉ ............
-- A. p. 227-228
SH usage will be ´ÉÒ®ú"Éè´É ¨Éå ¤ÉºÉ´É iÉlÉÉ ............

(iii) Similarly KH uses Eäò +xiÉMÉÇiÉ where only ¨Éå is required in SH.

............ EòxÉÉÇ]õEò Eäò +xiÉMÉÇiÉ ‡VÉiÉxÉä ¨ÉiÉvɨÉÇ ‡´Ét¨ÉÉxÉ lÉä ............
-- A. p. 227
Here again SH will use ¨Éå ............ EòxÉÉÇ]õEò ¨Éå ‡VÉiÉxÉä ¨ÉiÉ vɨÉÇ ............

6.4.2. KH also seems to use ¨Éå and {É®ú in free variation. In SH {É®ú denotes a relation expressing the location of something upon something. Thus {É®úü in the following KH use ............ JÉÖ"ÉÒ

JÉÖ"ÉÒ JÉÖ"ÉÒ ¨Éä®úÒ MÉÉänù {É®ú ºÉÉä VÉÉ+Éä
-- A. p. 238

is deviant from the point of view of SH. SH use will be ............ ¨Éä®úÒ MÉÉänù ¨Éå ºÉÉä VÉÉ+Éä*

6.4.3. KH uses a genetive post-position for SH locative. e.g.

............ =xÉEäò ‡nù±É EòÒ ¨ÉÚÌiÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB ¦ÉÒ ‡´É®úÉävÉ xÉ ®ú½þ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 76

Here SH will use ............ =xÉEäò ‡nù±É ¨Éå ¨ÉÚÌiÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB ¦ÉÒ ............

6.4.4. KH sometimes uses a juxtaposition of two locative post-positions where SH needs only one. Thus ............

(i) ‡´É¹hÉÖ´ÉvÉÇxÉ (‡¤É‡^õnäù´É) VÉèºÉä =nùÉ®ú ¾þnùªÉ ®úÉVÉÉ+Éå xÉä +{ÉxÉä ºÉ¨ÉªÉ Eäò ‡´É‡¦ÉzÉ vɨÉÉç Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ ¨Éå ºÉ¨Éx´ÉªÉ EòÉ ¦ÉÉ´É =i{ÉzÉ Eò®úEäò ............
-- A. p. 227

In SH only ¨Éå is required to be used not both ¤ÉÒSÉ ¨Éå i.e. ............ ‡´É‡¦ÉzÉ vɨÉÉæ ¨Éå ºÉ¨Éx´ÉªÉ EòÉ ¦ÉÉ´É ............

(ii) Eò¤ÉÒ®únùÉºÉ VÉÒ uùÉ®úÉ ‡VÉºÉ ‡xÉMÉÖÇhÉÉä{ÉɺÉxÉÉ EòÒ |ɇiɹ`öÉ ½Öþ<Ç =ºÉEòÉ |ÉSÉÉ®ú ............ ºÉ¨ÉÉVÉ EòÒ ‡xÉSɱÉÒ ¸ÉähÉÒ Eäò ±ÉÉäMÉÉå Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ ¨Éå ½Öþ+É ............
-- A. p. 218

In this case SH will use both the post-positions Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ and ¨Éå sequentially but only one. However while in the preceding example only ¨Éå was possible, I this case either Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ or ¨Éå can be used but not both in a sequence. Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ can be used for expressing the meaning of 'between', 'among' only in respect of human beings, ¨Éå, can be used in all cases.

(iii) ............ +iÉ& ‡"É´É +Éè®ú +ÆMÉ Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ ¨Éå {ÉnùÉÇ {Éc÷iÉÉ ½èþ ............
-- A. p. 105
Herein again KH uses the sequence Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ ¨Éå; SH will use only Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ*

Thus we find that KH uses Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ ¨Éå for among, amongst, between, in between, while SH use only xÉå or Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ as governed by the rules given above.

6.4.5. Sometimes KH uses a juxtaposition of two postpositions expressing two case relations. E.g.

¨ÉÎxnù®ú ¨Éå EòÒ {ÉilÉ®ú EòÒ ¨ÉÚÌiÉ ............
-- A. p. 56

In SH it is not possible to use two post-positions expressing different case relation in juxtaposition. In the above case SH sentence will be ¨ÉÎxnù®ú EòÒ {ÉilÉ®ú EòÒ ¨ÉÚÌiÉ ............

6.5. KH also uses a genetive where SH demands an instrumental. e.g.

(i) <ºÉEäò +‡iɇ®úCiÉ Eò¤ÉÒ®ú Eäò VÉx¨É +Éè®ú ®úɨÉÉxÉxnù VÉÒ EòÒ nùÒIÉÉ ±ÉäxÉä Eäò ºÉƤÉÆvÉ ¨Éå VÉÉä ............
-- A. p. 57

SH should use ºÉä and not EòÒ here. Thus ............ ®úɨÉÉxÉxnù VÉÒ ºÉä nùÒIÉÉ ±ÉäxÉä ............

6.6. Sometimes KH uses a repetitive compound post-position, where SH uses only a compound postposition.

............ BEò =SSÉEòÉä‡]õ EòÉ EòÉ´ªÉ ½èþ ‡VɺɨÉå ºÉ¨|ÉnùÉªÉ Eäò iÉi´ÉÉå Eäò ºÉÉlÉ-ºÉÉlÉ +xÉxªÉ ¦ÉÎCiÉ ´Éè®úÉMªÉ YÉÉxÉ EòÉ ¨ÉĘ́ÉEò ‡´É´ÉäSÉxÉ ‡EòªÉÉ ............

SH will use only Eäò ºÉÉlÉ* Thus ............ iÉi´ÉÉå Eäò ºÉÉlÉ +xÉxªÉ ¦ÉÎCiÉ ............

6.7. KH uses postposition involving various case relations where they are not used in SH.

(i) ºÉÖnùɨÉÉ Eäò ±ÉÉB ½ÖþB SÉÉ´É±É EòÉä UôÒxÉEò®ú JÉÉiÉä ½ÖþB EÞò¹hÉ EòÉ |ɺÉzÉ ½þÉäxÉÉ ............
-- A. p. 254

In SH we can say either ............ SÉÉ´É±É UôÒxÉEò®ú ............ or ............ SÉɴɱÉÉå EòÉä UôÒxÉEò®ú but not ............ SÉÉ´É±É EòÉä UôÒxÉEò®ú ............ Thus EòÉä is superfluous in this sentence.

(ii) ............ VɽþÉÄ MÉ®ú¨É nÚùvÉ ®úJÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ ´É½þÉÄ ½þ¨ÉÉ®äú {ÉÒUäô ºÉä JÉc÷É ®ú½þiÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 247

The use of ºÉä is superfluous here. SH usage is ............ ´É½þÉÄ ½þ¨ÉÉ®äú {ÉÒUäô JÉc÷É ®ú½þiÉÉ ½èþ*

(iii) ‡VÉºÉ iÉ®ú½þ {É䇮úªÉɲ´ÉÉ®ú ¡Úò±ÉÉå Eäò |ɇiÉ |Éä¨ÉÒ lÉä*
-- A. p. 195

In this case SH usage is ............ ¡Úò±ÉÉå Eäò |Éä¨ÉÒ lÉä and not ............ ¡Úò±ÉÉå Eäò |ɇiÉ |Éä¨ÉÒ lÉä* KH seems to have extended Eäò |ɇiÉ from SH construction ............ Eäò ¨ÉxÉ ¨Éå ¡Úò±ÉÉå Eäò |ɇiÉ |Éä¨É¦ÉÉ´É lÉÉ; such an extension is not acceptable in SH.

(iv) ............ +Éè®ú ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ Eäò |ɇiÉ |Éä¨ÉÉ´Éä"É ¨Éå +{ÉxÉä EòÉä ¦ÉÚ±É VÉÉiÉÒ ............
-- A. p. 195

Here again |ɇiÉ is superfluous from SH point of view.

(v) =ºÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ ¨Éå º´ÉɨÉÒ ®úɨÉÉxÉxnù EòÉ |ɦÉÉ´É JÉÚ¤É {Égø ®ú½þÉ lÉÉ ............
-- A. p. 58

In the above instance the temporal adverb does not take a locative postpoition ¨Éå in SH. Such adverbs seem to take ¨Éå postposition in KH. SH sentence will be =ºÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ º´ÉɨÉÒ ............

(vi) ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉÉå Eäò ®ú½þxÉ-ºÉ½þxÉ, ´Éä"É-¦ÉÚ¹ÉÉ +ɇnù EòÒ ¤É½ÖþiÉ ºÉÒ ¤ÉÉiÉÉå EòÉ ‡½þxnÚù VÉÒ´ÉxÉ ¨Éå ºÉ¨ÉÉ´Éä"É ½þÉä MɪÉÉ*
-- A. p. 214

Here the genitive position EòÒ is superfluous from SH point of view, as ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉÉå Eäò ®ú½þxÉ-ºÉ½þxÉ, ´Éä"É-¦ÉÚ¹É +ɇnù acts as a modifier phrase to the head noun ¤ÉÉiÉÉå ; modifier phrase does not stand in a genetive relation to the head noun.

Another possibility is to say +ɇnù ¤ÉÉiÉÉå EòÉ without using ¤É½ÖþiÉ ºÉÒ / +ɇnù semantically carries the sense of ¤É½ÖþiÉ-ºÉÒ which is superfluous. In this case also EòÒ will be deleted.

(vii) ªÉ½þ ¦É‡´É¹ªÉuùÉhÉÒ EòÒ lÉÒ ‡Eò iÉÖ¨½þÉ®äú PÉ®ú ¨Éå {É®ú‡"É´É-º´É°ü{É BEò ‡"ɴɪÉÉäMÉÒ EòÉ +´ÉiÉÉ®ú ½þÉäMÉÉ*
-- A. p. 124

In SH postposition ¨Éå is not required. The sentence in SH should be ............ iÉÖ¨½þÉ®äú PÉ®ú {É®ú ‡"É´É-º´É°ü{É ............

6.8. KH does not use a locative postposition where SH does in the following example:

+ɇJÉ®ú EÞò¹hÉ xÉä ºÉ¤É EòÉä ¨ÉxÉɪÉÉ ............
-- A. p. 250

SH usage demands locative postposition ¨Éå, thus this sentence will be +ɇJÉ®ú ¨Éå EÞò¹hÉ xÉä ............

6.9. (i) nù‡IÉhÉ Eäò ±ÉÉäMÉEÖòhb÷É +Éè®ú ¤ÉÒVÉÉ{ÉÖ®ú Eäò xÉ´ÉɤÉÉå EòÉä ½þ®úÉxÉä EòÉ {ɇ®úhÉÉ¨É ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ Eäò {ÉiÉxÉ ¨Éå ºÉ½þɪÉEò ½þÒ ‡ºÉrù ½Öþ+É*
-- A. p. 213

The KH use of the postpositional phrase ............ EòÉ {ɇ®úhÉÉ¨É is superfluous in SH from semantic as well as grammatical point of view. The omission of EòÉ {ɇ®úhÉÉ¨É will automatically result in the use of non-oblique form of the infinitive noun ½þ®úÉxÉÉ* Thus in SH this sentence can be rephrased as ............ xÉ´ÉɤÉÉå EòÉä ½þ®úÉxÉÉ ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ Eäò {ÉiÉxÉ ¨Éå ............

6.10. (i) ºÉxÉÚ ¤ÉÉ®ú½þ´ÉÒ "ÉiÉɤnùÒ ºÉä ‡´ÉVÉªÉ xÉMÉ®ú EòÒ ºlÉÉ{ÉxÉÉ iÉEò EòxÉÉÇ]õEò EòÒ ®úÉVÉxÉÒ‡iÉEò nù"ÉÉ ¤Éc÷Ò b÷É´ÉÉÆb÷Éä±É lÉÒ*
-- A. p. 221

In SH where X ºÉä a iÉEò as construction is used the noun preceding iÉEò has to be a spatial or temporal, hence we need to say ............ ‡´ÉVɪÉxÉMÉ®ú EòÒ ºlÉÉ{ÉxÉÉ Eäò ºÉ¨ÉªÉ iÉEò ............

7. Adverb and Adverbal Phrases

7.1. KH differs from SH in the use of adverbs and adverbial phrases and also in their position in the sentences. The following examples will illustrate the point.

(i) <ºÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ "ÉÚpù VÉɇiÉ ºÉ¨ÉÉVÉ Eäò =xÉ ºÉÉvÉÉ®úhÉ +‡vÉEòÉ®úÉå ºÉä ¦ÉÒ ´ÉƇSÉiÉ ½þÉä MɪÉÒ lÉÒ...........
-- A. p. 218

Here the adverbial phrase should be <ºÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ iÉEò ............ and not only <ºÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ because the intended meaning is 'by this time and not only 'this time'.

(ii) ¨Év´É¨ÉiÉ EòÒ ºlÉÉ{ÉxÉÉ Eäò ¤É½ÖþiÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ {ɽþ±Éä ½þÒ iɇ¨É±ÉxÉÉbÖ÷ ¨Éå "Éè´É¦ÉÎCiÉ ºÉÉvÉxÉÉ Eäò ºÉÉlÉ ºÉÉlÉ ............
-- A. p. 190

In this case the constituent ºÉ¨ÉªÉ is superfluous. ¤É½ÖþiÉ {ɽþ±Éä ½þÒ is sufficient to convey the meaning.

(iii) ¤ÉÉnùɇ¨É Eäò ({ÉÎ"SɨÉ) SÉɱÉÖCªÉ ®úÉVÉÉ {ÉÖ±ÉEäò‡"É (nùÉä) xÉä ºÉ´ÉÇ|ÉlÉ¨É EòxÉÉÇ]õEò ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ EòÒ xÉÒ´É b÷ɱÉÒ +Éè®ú ............
-- A. p. 221

The use of ºÉ´ÉÇ|ÉlÉ¨É according to SH, is superfluous. ºÉ´ÉÇ|ÉlÉ¨É is used only when describing an action in a series of actions which follow or in an enumeration set. None of these situations apply here.

(iv) <xÉ nùÒxÉÉå "ÉÉJÉÉ+Éå EòÒ =kÉ®úÒ ¦ÉÉ®úiÉ ¨Éå JÉÚ¤É {ÉÖι]õ ½Öþ<Ç ............* ªÉ½þÉÄ ®úɨɦÉÎCiÉ ¦ÉÉ´ÉxÉÉ ‡½þxnùÒ ¨Éå =SSÉ EòÉä‡]õ Eäò ‡´É{ÉÖ±É ºÉɇ½þiªÉ Eäò ‡xɨÉÉÇhÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB BEò |É¤É±É |Éä®úEò-"ÉÎCiÉ ¤ÉxÉÒ*
-- A. p. 56

The spatial adverb ªÉ½þÉÄ should either be deleted or replaced by its referent =kÉ®úÒ ¦ÉÉ®úiÉ ¨Éå* It is also possible, in SH to use a manner adverb <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú ªÉ½þ ®úÉ¨É ¦ÉÎCiÉ-¦ÉÉ´ÉxÉÉ ‡½þxnùÒ ¨Éå ............

7.2. KH also uses adverbs which are semantically inappropriate in SH to carry intended meaning, e.g.,

(i) ............ |ɦÉÉä CªÉÉå xɽþÓ ªÉ½þ Eò½þiÉä "+É MɪÉÉ"* ºÉnùÉ iÉÖ¨½åþ {ÉÖEòÉ®ú ®ú½þÉ ½ÚÄþ, '+ɪÉÉ' Eò½äþ ‡¤ÉxÉÉ ½äþ EÚòb÷±É ºÉÆMÉ¨É näù´É ............
-- A. p. 119

According SH ÃÖ¤üÖ is inappropriate here. Instead ¤É®úɤɮú / ‡xÉ®úxiÉ®ú should be used to convey the meaning.

(ii) ............ {ÉÞl´ÉÒ®úÉVÉ Eäò xÉäiÉÞi´É ¨Éå ‡½þxnÚù "ÉÎCiÉ BEò ¤ÉÉ®ú VÉÉMÉÒ............
-- A. p. 210

The use of ‹ú ²ÖÖ¸ü is inappropriate. The intended meaning is 'again/once again'. SH will use either ‡¡ò®ú or ‡¡ò®ú BEò¤ÉÉ®ú* Thus here it should be BEò ¤ÉÉ®ú ‡¡ò®ú and not BEò ¤ÉÉ®ú.

7.3. The place of adverb also differs in KH or compare to SH. The following example will illustrate the point.

(i) =qù´É ............ Uô& ¨ÉÉºÉ iÉEò ¥ÉVÉ ¨Éå ®ú½þEò®ú MÉÉä{É-¤ÉɱÉÉä+Éå EòÉä ¥ÉÀZÉÉxÉ EòÉ ={Énäù"É ¦É®úºÉEò näùiÉä ½éþ*
-- A. p. 255

¦É®úºÉEò will be used before ¥ÉÀYÉÉxÉ EòÉ ={Énäù"É in SH and not between ¥ÉÀYÉÉxÉ EòÉ ={Énäù"É and näùiÉä ½éþ*

(ii) <ºÉä `öÒEò `öÒEò Eò½þ Eò®ú ºÉ¨ÉZÉɪÉÉ xɽþÓ VÉÉ ºÉEòiÉÉ*
-- A. p. 60

Here according to SH adverbial phrase should be placed before ºÉ¨ÉZÉɪÉÉ* Thus SH sentence will be <ºÉä Eò½þEò®ú `öÒEò `öÒEò ºÉ¨ÉZÉɪÉÉ ............

7.4. KH uses duplicated adverbials where they are not appropriate from SH point of view. e.g.,

<ºÉ‡±ÉB ºÉMÉÖhÉ-¤Éè¹hÉ´É-¦ÉCiÉÉå xÉä VÉ¤É VÉ¤É +{ÉxÉÒ ¦ÉÎCiÉ ºÉÉvÉxÉÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB ´ÉÉiºÉ±ªÉ ¦ÉÉ´É EòÉä +{ÉxÉɪÉÉ ½èþ iÉ¤É iÉ¤É ‡´É"Éä¹É °ü{É ºÉä ¨ÉÉiÉÞ ½ÖþnùªÉ Eäò ............
-- A. p. 232

Here VÉ¤É VÉ¤É ............ iÉ¤É iÉ¤É has been used; SH will prefer here VÉ¤É ¦ÉÒ / VÉ¤É Eò¦ÉÒ ¦ÉÒ ............ iÉ¤É ‡´É"Éä¹É °ü{É ºÉä ............

7.5. KH sometimes uses an adjective where SH requires an adverb. The following use illustrates this point:

(i) =x½þÉåxÉä ®úɨÉ-xÉÉ¨É EòÒ ¨ÉvÉÖ®úiÉÉ iÉlÉÉ ¦É´ªÉiÉÉ EòÉä {ÉÚhÉÇ ¾þtÆMÉ¨É Eò®ú ‡±ÉªÉÉ lÉÉ ............

KH uses adjective {ÉÚhÉÇ here; SH demands an adverb and will use {ÉÚhÉÇiɪÉÉ or {ÉÚhÉÇiÉ& ¾þnùªÉÆMÉ¨É Eò®ú ‡±ÉªÉÉ lÉÉ* ............

7.6. KH uses an adjectival form rather an adverbial in enumeration series, e.g.,

nÚùºÉ®úÉ, ´Éä ±ÉÉäMÉ ‡½þxnÚù-VÉÒ´ÉxÉ-nù"ÉÇxÉ Eäò ‡EòºÉÒ {ɽþ±ÉÚ Eäò ºÉÉlÉ ‡EòºÉÒ |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÉ ºÉ¨ÉZÉÉèiÉÉ Eò®úxÉä ............
-- A. p. 216

Here in place of adjective nÚùºÉ®úÉ adverbial form nÚùºÉ®äú is required.

8. Emphatic Particles

8.1. KH use of emphatic differs from SH. In terms of emphatic of both kinds, inclusives as well as exclusives. Thus in the following two examples ¦ÉÒ is used in SH while KH does not do so.

(i) ¨ÉÉv´É¨ÉiÉ iÉlÉÉ ¸ÉÒ ´Éè¹hÉ´É-vɨÉÉç Eäò |ÉSÉÉ®ú ºÉä =ºÉEòÒ ®ú½þÒ ºÉ½þÒ vÉÉEò VÉÉiÉÒ ®ú½þÒ*
-- A. p. 227

Here SH usage will be ............ =ºÉEòÒ ®ú½þÒ vÉÉEò ¦ÉÒ VÉÉiÉÒ ®ú½þÒ*

(ii) ............ ±Éä‡EòxÉ Eò¤ÉÒ®ú EòÒ ¨ÉvÉÖ®ú-¦ÉÎCiÉ {ÉÚhÉÇiɪÉÉ +¦ÉÉ®úiÉÒªÉ xɽþÓ Eò½þÒ VÉÉ ºÉEòiÉÒ ½èþ, CªÉÉå‡Eò ºÉÚ‡¡ò Eò‡´ÉªÉÉå xÉä {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ EòÉä ‡|ɪÉiɨÉÉ ¨ÉÉxÉ Eò®ú ............
-- A. p. 60

SH sentence will be ............ +¦ÉÉ®úiÉÒªÉ xɽþÓ Eò½þÒ VÉÉ ºÉEòiÉÒ ½èþ, CªÉÉå‡Eò ºÉÚ¡òÒ Eò‡´ÉªÉÉå xÉä ¦ÉÒ {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ EòÉä ............

8.2. In The following examples ½þÒ and ¦ÉÒ are both superfluous from the point of view of SH usage.

(i) ¸ÉÒEò®ú¦ÉɹªÉ EòÒ ®úSÉxÉÉ ¤ÉºÉ´É Eäò {ɽþ±Éä ½þÒ ½Öþ<Ç lÉÒ ªÉÉ ¤ÉÉnù EòÉä <ºÉ¨Éå ºÉÆnäù½þ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 100

SH sentence will be ............ ¤ÉºÉ´É Eäò {ɽþ±Éä ½þÒ ½Öþ<Ç lÉÒ ªÉÉ ¤ÉÉnù ............

(ii) ............ ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉÉå EòÒ <ºÉ ‡´É±ÉɇºÉiÉÉ EòÉ ¦ÉÒ EÖòUô |ɦÉÉ´É ‡½þxnÚù VÉÒ´ÉxÉ {É®ú {Écä÷ ‡¤ÉxÉÉ xɽþÓ ®ú½þÉ*
-- A. p. 216

According to SH this sentence will be ............ ‡´É±ÉɇºÉiÉÉ EòÉ EÖòUô |ɦÉÉ´É ‡½þxnÚù ............

8.3. The KH differs also in terms of the placement of the emphatic particles. The following examples illustrate the point.

(i) <ºÉ ®úÉ¨É EòÒ ={ÉɺÉxÉÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB xÉ ‡EòºÉÒ ¨ÉÎxnù®ú ¨Éå VÉÉxÉä EòÒ VÉ°ü®úiÉ lÉÒ xÉ ‡EòºÉÒ "ÉɺjÉOÉxlÉ EòÉ +´É±ÉÉäEòxÉ Eò®úxÉÉ ½þÒ {Éc÷iÉÉ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 218

In SH this sentence will be ............¨ÉÎxnù®ú ¨Éå VÉÉxÉä EòÒ VÉ°ü®úiÉ lÉÒ xÉ ½þÒ ‡EòºÉÒ "ÉɺjÉOÉxlÉ EòÉ +´É±ÉÉäEòxÉ Eò®úxÉÉ {Éc÷iÉÉ lÉÉ*

(ii) ............ <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú +Eò¤É®ú xÉä vÉĘ́ÉEò ‡´ÉSÉÉ®úÉå ¨Éå ºÉ¨Éx´ÉªÉ ºlÉɇ{ÉiÉ Eò®úxÉä EòÉ |ɪÉixÉ ¦ÉÒ ‡EòªÉÉ* =ºÉEäò +{ÉxÉä ®úÉVªÉ ¨Éå ºÉɇ½þiªÉ iÉlÉÉ +xªÉ ±É‡±ÉiÉEò±ÉÉ+Éå Eäò ‡±ÉB |ÉÉäºiÉɽþxÉ ¦ÉÒ ‡nùªÉÉ*
-- A. p. 212

SH usage will be ............ +xªÉ ±É‡±ÉiÉ Eò±ÉÉ+Éå Eäò ‡±ÉB ¦ÉÒ |ÉÉäºiÉɽþxÉ ‡nùªÉÉ*

9. Conjuncts

9.1. KH uses conjunct ‡Eò where SH will use a form belonging to a different grammatical category and not ‡Eò.

(i) ´É½þ BäºÉÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ lÉÉ ‡Eò ¤ÉÉèrù +Éè®ú VÉèxÉ vɨÉÇ Eäò |ÉSÉÉ®úEòÉå xÉä nù‡IÉhÉ ¦ÉÉ®úiÉ Eäò EòÉäxÉä EòÉèxÉ............
-- A. p. 202

Here in place of ‡Eò SH will use VÉ¤É ¤ÉÉèrù ............, and then the principal clause should have a time expression referring to that expressed by VɤÉ.

(ii) ªÉ½þ näùJÉiÉÒ ‡Eò ªÉ½þ ¨ÉɱÉÉ ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ EòÉä +Ì{ÉiÉ Eò®úxÉä ±ÉɪÉEò ¤ÉxÉÒ ½èþ ‡Eò xɽþÓ*
-- A. p. 195-196

In 'whether' clauses SH uses ªÉÉ and not ‡Eò* Thus the use will be ............ ¤ÉxÉÒ ½èþ ªÉÉ xɽþÓ*

(iii) ½þ‡®ú½þ®ú EòÒ ¨ÉÞiªÉÖ iÉEò, Eò½þ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ, ¤ÉÖCEò, ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ Eäò nù‡IÉhÉ ¦ÉÉMÉ ¨Éå ............
-- A. p. 224

Here the conjuct ‡Eò is required to connect the principal clause Eò½þÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ with the dependent clause.

9.2. In SH a conjunct word or phrase is not used to begin a paragraph. Thus the use of ‡¡ò®ú ºÉä in the following example is deviant from SH point of view.

(i) ‡¡ò®ú ºÉä +xÉxiÉ "ÉÎCiÉ ºÉ¨{ÉzÉ ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ ¸ÉÒ EÞò¹hÉ EòÒ iÉÒxÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÒ "ÉÎCiɪÉÉÄ ½éþ, ............
-- A. p. 91

9.3. KH differs from SH in the use of additive particle +Éè®ú in SH in the case of oppositional constituent of negative phrase or is used before the last constituent. KH does not do so.

(i) ............‡´É"Éä¹É °ü{É ºÉä +{ÉxÉÒ EÞò‡iɪÉÉå ¨Éå ¥ÉÉÀhÉÉå Eäò ‡±ÉB, ¦ÉÎCiÉ, YÉÉxÉ, +Éè®ú Eò¨ÉÇ EòÉ "ÉɺjÉÒªÉ ‡xÉ°ü{ÉhÉ ‡EòªÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 145

SH use will be ............ ¦ÉÎCiÉ, YÉÉxÉ +Éè®ú Eò¨ÉÇ EòÉ "ÉɺjÉÒªÉ ‡xÉ°ü{ÉhÉ ‡EòªÉÉ ½èþ*

(ii) ............ EòÉ EòÉ´ªÉ ½èþ ‡VɺɨÉå ºÉ¨|ÉnùÉªÉ Eäò iÉi´ÉÉå Eäò ºÉÉlÉ-ºÉÉlÉ +xÉxªÉ ¦ÉÎCiÉ ´Éè®úÉMªÉ, YÉÉxÉ EòÉ ¨ÉĘ́ÉEò ‡´É´ÉäSÉxÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 177

SH use will be ............¦ÉÎCiÉ, ´Éè®úÉMªÉ +Éè®ú YÉÉxÉ EòÉ ¨ÉĘ́ÉEò ............

9.4. In SH +Éè®ú is also used as a connector between appositional clauses. KH has not used the connector +Éè®ú in the following examples.

(i) ............ ºÉÉvÉxÉÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB ´ÉhÉÉÇ¸É¨É vɨÉÇ EòÉ ¤ÉÆvÉxÉ ´ªÉlÉÇ ºÉ¨ÉZÉÉ, JÉÉxÉ-{ÉÉxÉ EòÒ ZÉÆZÉ]õ ¨Éå {Éc÷xÉÉ ¤ÉÉvÉEò ¨ÉÉxÉÉ*
-- A. p. 55

SH will use coordinator +Éè®ú; thus the sentence will be ............ ¤ÉÆvÉxÉ ´ªÉlÉÇ ºÉ¨ÉZÉÉ +Éè®ú JÉÉxÉ-{ÉÉxÉ ............

(ii) ............ ‡EòxiÉÖ {ÉÉ®úº{ɇ®úEò uäù¹ÉÉÎxMÉ ¨Éå º´ÉªÉÆ VÉ±É MɪÉÒ, +ÉGò¨ÉhÉEòɇ®úªÉÉå EòÒ "ÉÎCiÉ EòÉä {É®úɺiÉ xɽþÓ Eò®ú ºÉEòÒ*
-- A. p. 210

SH sentence will be ............ º´ÉªÉÆ VÉ±É MɪÉÒ ............ +Éè®ú +ÉGò¨ÉhÉEòɇ®úªÉÉå EòÒ "ÉÎCiÉ ............

9.5. KH also deviates by using ËEòiÉÖ where SH will use the connector +Éè®ú* The following example illustrates the point.

(i) "ÉÎCiÉ ºÉä +É´É®úhÉ {ÉènùÉ ½þÉäiÉÉ ½èþ +iÉ& ‡"É´É +Éè®ú +ÆMÉ Eäò ¤ÉÒSÉ ¨Éå {ÉnùÉÇ {Éc÷iÉÉ ½èþ* ËEòiÉÖ ¦ÉÎCiÉ <ºÉ {É®únäù EòÉä ½þ]õÉxÉä EòÉ |ɪÉixÉ Eò®úiÉÒ ½èþ*

Here SH will use +Éè®ú instead of ËEòiÉÖ ; thus this sentence will be ............ {ÉnùÉÇ{Éc÷iÉÉ ½èþ +Éè®ú ¦ÉÎCiÉ <ºÉ ............

10. Lexicon

In terms of lexical use and its collocation, selection and the use of idioms KH differs significantly from SH.

The differences are of following types.

(a) Collocational differences.

(b) In terms of the use of idioms and idiomatic expressions: KH differs significantly from SH. KH sometimes changes the SH idiomatic phrase by substituting a constituent of the phrase by a synonymous item or by replacing it by a loan translation from KH. Such instances can be considered as peculiarities of collocation by treating idiomatic expressions as a particular type of collocation.

(c) In terms of selection of lexical items there are stylistic restrictions in SH. Moreover in a certain register, also sentences using items mainly from only one of the sources like inherited Hindi vocabulary (iÉnÂù¦É´É), Perso-Arabic words, Sanskritized vocabulary, etc. KH does not adhere to identical rule of constraints of selection. KH uses more colloquialisms even in the literary (formal or semiformal) style than SH. In many instances KH uses items especially Sanskrit loan words in a meaning different from the one they have in SH. This meaning is either the original Sanskrit meaning and KH ignores the semantic adaptation that the items have undergone in SH or uses them in the meanings that such items have in Kannada.

10.1. Collocational peculiarities.

(i) ............ +Éè®ú iÉiEòɱÉÒxÉ EòxÉÉÇ]õEò Eäò ±ÉMɦÉMÉ ºÉ¦ÉÒ UôÉä]äõ-UôÉä]äõ ®úÉVÉÉ+Éå EòÉä +{ÉxÉä ´É"É ¨Éå ±ÉÉEò®ú +{ÉxÉÒ ´Éè¦É´É {ÉiÉÉEòÉ ¡ò½þ®úÉ<Ç*
-- A. p. 221

In SH the noun ´É"É demands the verb Eò®úxÉÉ or Eò®ú ±ÉäxÉÉ* In the latter case two co-ordinate clauses have to be used in SH with an additive conjunction.

(a) ............ +{ÉxÉä ´É"É ¨Éå Eò®úEäò +{ÉxÉÒ ´Éè¦É´É ............
(b) ............ +{ÉxÉä ´É"É ¨Éå Eò®ú ‡±ÉªÉÉ +Éè®ú +{ÉxÉÒ ´Éè¦É´É {ÉiÉÉEòÉ ............ However KH uses ±ÉÉxÉÉ with ´É"É
(c) Eò¤ÉÒ®ú +{ÉxÉä ‡xÉMÉÖÇhÉ ®úÉ¨É EòÉ ¨ÉiÉ±É¤É Eäò´É±É BEò ‡xɹÉävÉÉi¨ÉEò ¦ÉÉ´É xɽþÓ ±ÉMÉÉiÉä*

In SH ¨ÉiÉ±É¤É ±ÉMÉÉxÉÉ can be used only in the sense of misunderstanding a certain situation and is then used with the negative particle ¨ÉiÉ* When we have a declarative statement of the kind X can mean/means Y, this idiom is not used in SH. Thus SH sentence can be ............ ‡xÉMÉÖÇhÉ ®úÉ¨É ºÉä Eò¤ÉÒ®ú EòÉ ¨ÉiÉ±É¤É BEò ‡xɹÉävÉÉi¨ÉEò ¦ÉÉ´É xɽþÓ ½èþ* In KH ¨ÉiÉ±É¤É ±ÉMÉÉxÉÉ seems to have been extended to declarative sentence too.

(iii) xɨ¨Éɲ´ÉÉ®ú xÉä +{ÉxÉÒ iÉ{ɺªÉÉ Eäò ¡ò±Éº´É°ü{É <Ç…É®ú Eäò ºÉÉIÉÉiEòÉ®ú EòÉ +xÉÖ¦É´É {ÉɪÉÉ lÉÉ +Éè®ú =ºÉä ºÉÖxnù®ú MÉÒiÉÉå ¨Éå ºÉÖxÉɪÉÉ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 201

ºÉÉIÉÉiEòÉ®ú is a physical reality and +xÉÖ¦É´É is an abstract experience and they do not collocate in SH. SH uses ºÉÉIÉÉiEòÉ®ú ½þÉäxÉÉ (Intr) Eò®úxÉÉ (Tran). Thus SH differs from SH here.

-ºÉÖxÉxÉÉ- is also a peculiar use in KH here, SH will use the verb phrase ´ªÉCiÉ Eò®úxÉÉ instead. in SH this above sentence would be ............ EòÉ ºÉÉIÉÉiEòÉ®ú |ÉÉ{iÉ ‡EòªÉÉ +Éè®ú =ºÉä ºÉÖxnù®ú MÉÒiÉÉå ¨Éå ´ªÉCiÉ ‡EòªÉÉ*

(iv) ‡VÉºÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ ‡½þxnùÒ-ºÉɇ½þiªÉ ¤ÉxÉxÉä ±ÉMÉÉ lÉÉ ´É½þ ‡½þxnùÒ ºÉɇ½þiªÉ EòÉ +ɇnù EòÉ±É ¨ÉÉxÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 208

The KH usage ºÉɇ½þiªÉ ¤ÉxÉxÉÉ is peculiar. ¤ÉxÉxÉÉ in SH denotes an act of creating / building but not be developing or evolving. Here the meaning to convey is that of evolving / developing. Hence the KH use is peculiar from SH point of view. SH sentence would be ............ ‡½þxnùÒ ºÉɇ½þiªÉ EòÒ ®úSÉxÉÉ +É®ú¨¦É ½Öþ<Ç lÉÒ, ´É½þ ‡½þxnùÒ ............

The same comment can be made about the use of ‡xɨÉÉÇhÉ in the following KH sentence ............ EÞò¹hÉÉä{ÉɺÉxÉÉ Eäò ‡´É{ÉÖ±É ºÉɇ½þiªÉ EòÉ ‡xɨÉÉÇhÉ............;
-- A. p. 88
SH use will be ............ ºÉɇ½þiªÉ EòÒ ®úSÉxÉÉ*

(v) +ÉGò¨ÉhÉEòɇ®úªÉÉå EòÒ "ÉÎCiÉ EòÉä {É®úɺiÉ xɽþÓ Eò®ú ºÉEòÒ*
-- A. p. 210

In SH the noun phrase of the predicate having the person(s) to be defeated and not the qualities of the same. Thus +ÉGò¨ÉhÉEòɇ®úªÉÉå EòÉä {É®úɺiÉ xɽþÓ Eò®ú ºÉEòÒ* However, if the verb has to be used, SH will collocate it with a verb meaning 'destroy', i.e., xɹ]õ Eò®úxÉÉ or some such verb.

(vi) ............ EòxÉÉÇ]õEò Eäò vÉĘ́ÉEò VÉÒ´ÉxÉ ¨Éå ¤Éc÷Ò GòÉÎxiÉ ={ÉκlÉiÉ ½þÉä MɪÉÒ lÉÒ*
-- A. p. 227

In SH GòÉÎxiÉ does not collocate with ={ÉκlÉiÉ ½þÉäxÉÉ but can be used as GòÉÎxiÉ (=i{ÉzÉ) ½þÉäxÉÉ* Thus EòxÉÉÇ]õEò Eäò ‡VÉ´ÉxÉ ¨Éå ¤Éc÷Ò GòÉÎxiÉ =i{ÉzÉ ½þÉä MɪÉÒ lÉÒ* It may also be mentioned that the descriptive adjective ¤Éc÷Ò is also inappropriate. If at all, SH will use Mɽþ®úÒ instead.

(vii) ªÉt‡{É ªÉÉnù´É +Éè®ú ½äþɪɺɳý BEò ½þÒ EÖò±É EòÒ nùÉä "ÉÉJÉÉ+Éå ¨Éå ‡´ÉEò‡ºÉiÉ lÉä iÉÉä ¦ÉÒ ............
-- A. p. 222

According to SH ‡´ÉEò‡ºÉiÉ is an inappropriate lexical use in KH as ‡´ÉEò‡ºÉiÉ ½þÉäxÉÉ is a process and not a state. The above KH sentence could be in SH as follows ............ BEò ½þÒ EÖò±É EòÒ nùÉä "ÉÉJÉɪÉå lÉÒ ............

(viii) ¨ÉÉv´É¨ÉiÉ ¨Éå {ÉÉÄSÉ®úÉjÉ Eäò iÉi´ÉÉå EòÉä ‡´É"Éä¹É ¨É½þkÉÉ xɽþÓ nùÒ MɪÉÒ ½èþ ............

Here in lexical use of iÉi´ÉÉå is inappropriate for SH. SH will use ‡ºÉrùÉÆiÉÉå instead. Further more the collocation of ‡´É"Éä¹É and ¨É½þkÉÉ is also deviant, ‡´É"Éä¹É ¨É½þi´É would be more appropriate stylistically.

(ix) ............ +É{ÉºÉ Eäò ºÉÆPɹÉÇ EòÒ +´ÉºlÉÉ ¤ÉÒiÉ SÉÖEòÒ lÉÒ*
-- A. p. 178

The use of +´ÉºlÉÉ here is lexically inappropriate. SH will use κlɇiÉ instead. Moreover ¤ÉÒiÉ SÉÖEòÉxÉÉ can be used in relation to an experience and not a stage. SH will rather use ºÉ¨ÉÉ{iÉ ½þÉä VÉÉxÉÉ / SÉÖEòxÉÉ* Thus the sentence, in SH, will be ............ +É{ÉºÉ Eäò ºÉÆPɹÉÇ EòÒ ÎºlɇiÉ ºÉ¨ÉÉ{iÉ ½þÉä MɪÉÒ lÉÒ/SÉÖEòÒ lÉÒ*

(x) ¸ÉÒ ‡´Éα±É{ÉÖkÉ®ú Eäò ´É]õ{ÉjÉ"ÉɪÉÒ ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ EòÒ +xÉxªÉ ¦ÉÎCiÉ, ¨Éå iɱ±ÉÒxÉ ½þÉäEò®ú {É䇮úªÉɲ´ÉÉ®ú xÉä ¨ÉvÉÖ®ú®úºÉ‡ºÉCiÉ ºÉèEòc÷Éå +xɨÉÉä±É {Énù MÉB ½éþ, VÉÉä '‡iÉ°ü{ɱ±ÉÉhbÖ÷' +Éè®ú '‡iÉ°ü¨ÉÉ䇳ý' Eäò xÉÉ¨É ºÉä nùÉä ¦ÉÉMÉÉå ¨Éå {ÉÉB VÉÉiÉä ½éþ*
-- A. p. 195

The above sentence has two peculiar usages:
(a) +xɨÉÉä±É {Énù MÉÉB ½éþ*

The use of MÉÉxÉÉ here does not convey the meaning of composing, which is the intended purport. For 'Composing' the sentence has to use a different sentence structure, i.e., ............ {ÉnùÉå EòÒ ®úSÉxÉÉ EòÉä ½èþ, the semantic collocation of +xɨÉÉä±É with {Énù is also a literary idiom peculiar to SH.

(b) The sentence structure of VÉÉä ............ {ÉÉB VÉÉiÉä ½éþ, does not convey the intended meaning that the Poems are complied in two parts named as ‡iÉ°ü{ɱ±ÉÉhbÖ÷ and ‡iÉ°ü¨ÉÉ䇳ý * The sentence needs to be rephrased as follows:

VÉÉä ............ nùÉä ¦ÉMÉÉå ¨Éå ºÉÆOɇ½þiÉ / ºÉÆEò‡±ÉiÉ ½éþ*

(xi) ............ VɽþÉÄ VɽþÉÄ <ºÉ iÉ®ú½þ EòÉ ´ÉhÉÇxÉ ½Öþ+É ½èþ ´É½þ ¤É½ÖþiÉ ½þÒ ºÉÖxnù®ú ¤ÉxÉÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 182

Here KH uses a single verb ¤ÉxÉÉ ½èþ where as SH will use a compound verb ¤ÉxÉ {Éc÷É ½èþ or only ½þÉäxÉÉ, i.e., ............ºÉÖxnù®ú ½èþ*

(xii) ‡VÉºÉ iÉ®ú½þ ´ÉÉiºÉ±ªÉ-¦ÉÎCiÉ Eäò +xiÉMÉÇiÉ ¦ÉMÉ´ÉÉxÉ Eäò ºÉÉlÉ ´ªÉ´É½þÉ®ú Eò®úxÉä ¨Éå ¦ÉCiÉ EòÉä º´ÉiÉÆjÉiÉÉ ‡¨É±ÉiÉÒ ½èþ ............
-- A. p. 248

º´ÉiÉÆjÉiÉÉ ‡¨É±ÉxÉÉ denotes a meaning other than what the context demands here. In SH the intended meaning will be expressed as ............´ªÉ´É½þÉ®ú Eò®úxÉä ¨Éå ¦ÉCiÉ EòÉä º´ÉiÉÆjÉiÉÉ ½þÉäiÉÒ ½èþ* KH does not make the subtle difference of meaning corrected with º´ÉiÉÆjÉiÉÉ ½þÉäxÉÉ / ‡¨É±ÉxÉÉ*

(xiii) ¸ÉÒ º´ÉɨÉÒ ®úɨÉÉxÉxnùVÉÒ xÉä VÉÉä ®úɨÉ-¦ÉÎCiÉ SɱÉɪÉÒ =ºÉEòÉ nùÉ"ÉLJxÉEò {ÉIÉ ............
-- A. p. 55

In SH propogation of a trend, theory, school, etc., i.e., an idea or an abstraction, is not expressed by SɱÉÉxÉÉ* SɱÉÉxÉÉ is used only for propogating or giving currency to other things. SH does not make this distinction, hence ¦ÉÎCiÉ SɱÉɪÉÒ* SH sentence will be ¸ÉÒ º´ÉɨÉÒ ®úɨÉÉxÉxnùVÉÒ xÉä ‡VÉºÉ ®úɨɦÉÎCiÉ EòÉ |ÉSÉÉ®ú ‡EòªÉÉ ............

(xiv) ............ =ºÉÒ "ɤnù {É®ú +{ÉxÉÒ ºÉÉ®úÒ Eò±{ÉxÉÉ ¤Éè`öɪÉÒ lÉÒ*
-- A. p. 58

In SH Eò±{ÉxÉÉ does not collocate with ¤Éè`öxÉÉ which is a possible collocation in KH. The intended meaning can best be expressed in SH by ............ Eò±{ÉxÉÉ EäòÎxpùiÉ EòÒ lÉÒ or ºÉÉ®úÒ Eò±{ÉxÉÉ ±ÉMÉÉ nùÒ lÉÒ*

(xv) ............ MÉÉänù ¨Éå =`öÉiÉÒ ½èþ ............
............ ¸ÉÒ ‡xɇvÉ EòÉä ½þÉlÉ ¨Éå =`öÉEò®ú SÉÚ¨ÉiÉÒ ½èþ ............

-- A. p. 239

In SH it is MÉÉänù ¨Éå not ½þÉlÉ ¨Éå as it is in KH, and then in these two examples the item MÉÉänù demands verb ±ÉäxÉÉ or =`öÉ ±ÉäxÉÉ* It is possible to use the idioms, in SH, ¤ÉɽþÉå ¨Éå ±ÉäxÉÉ but not ½þÉlÉ ¨Éå and the verb =`öÉxÉÉ here is not used at all in SH.

(xvii) ............ ‡EòxiÉÖ =xɨÉå ºÉä EòÉä<Ç ¦ÉÒ {ÉÆVÉÉ¤É ºÉä +ÉMÉä +{ÉxÉÉ ®úÉVªÉ xɽþÓ Eò®ú ºÉEäò +Éè®ú ®úÉVÉ{ÉÚiÉ ®úÉVÉÉ =xÉEòÉä {É®úɺiÉ Eò®úEäò näù"É EòÒ ®úIÉÉ Eò®úiÉä ®ú½äþ*
-- A. p. 210

In SH the adverb +ÉMÉä requires the verb phrase ¤ÉgøÉxÉÉ i.e., in this verb structure the sentence can be rephrased as ............ ‡EòxiÉÖ =xɨÉå ºÉä EòÉä<Ç ¦ÉÒ +{ÉxÉÉ ®úÉVªÉ {ÉÆVÉÉ¤É ºÉä +ÉMÉä xɽþÓ ¤ÉgøÉ ºÉEäò ............* The order of constituent phrase in this sentence though acceptable in SH can stylistically be adjusted as ............ EòÉä<Ç ¦ÉÒ +{ÉxÉÉ ®úÉVªÉ {ÉÆVÉÉ¤É ºÉä +ÉMÉä xɽþÓ ¤ÉgøÉ ºÉEäò ............

10.2. (i) ............ +xªÉ VÉɇiɪÉÉå Eäò ºÉÉlÉ =xÉEòÉ ´ªÉ´É½þ®ú MÉÉè®ú ªÉÖCiÉ xɽþÓ lÉÉ :

For KH lexical item MÉÉè®ú´ÉªÉÖCiÉ the better choice, according SH, will be =‡SÉiÉ*

(ii) ............ VɽþÉÄ nÆù‡JÉB ´É½þÉÄ EÞò¹hÉ EòÉ ºiÉÉäjÉ ‡EòªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ ............
-- A. p. 182

Lexical choice of Sanskrit words is quite different in KH from SH. Here SH choice will be ............ ºiÉÖ‡iÉ EòÒ MɪÉÒ ½èþ ............

(iii) ............ ºÉÉä¨ÉxÉÉlÉ xÉä +{ÉxÉä EòÉ´ªÉ ¨Éå EÞò¹hÉ EòlÉÉ EòÉ ‡xÉ°ü{ÉhÉ EÞò¹hÉ VÉx¨É ºÉä ±ÉäEò®ú ............
-- A. p. 178

‡xÉ°ü{ÉhÉ means, in SH, explication; the proper use will be ´ÉhÉÇxÉ here.

(iv) ............ VÉÉä ‡xÉªÉ¨É +‡iÉ |ÉÉSÉÒxÉ EòÉ±É ºÉä SɱÉä +É ®ú½äþ lÉä ............
-- A. p. 218

The use of the Sanskrit item +‡iÉ as adjective, here indicates the tendency of KH towards over Sanskritization. In SH the frequent adjective will be ¤É½ÖþiÉ and not +‡iÉ

(v) (a) ºÉxÉ ¤ÉÉ®ú½þ´ÉÓ "ÉiÉɤnùÒ ºÉä .............
-- A. p. 221

Here according to SH usage ºÉxÉÚ is superfluous here. Same is the case in the following example.

(b) ºÉxÉÚ +É`ö´ÉÓ "ÉiÉɤnùÒ ºÉä ºÉxÉÚ SÉÉènù½þ´ÉÓ "ÉiÉɤnùÒ iÉEò EòÉ EòÉ±É ............
-- A. p. 74

It may be added here that alternately <ǺÉÉ EòÒ ............can be used in SH. Thus <ǺÉÉ EòÒ +`ö´ÉÓ "ÉiÉɤnùÒ is possible in SH, but not ºÉxÉÚ +É`ö´ÉÓ "ÉiÉɤnùÒ*

(vi) ............ ªÉ½þÒ ´ÉÒ®ú "Éè´É ¨ÉiÉ EòÉ ºÉÉ®ú-ºÉ´ÉǺ´É ½èþ*
-- A. p. 114

The compound phrase ºÉÉ®ú-ºÉ´ÉǺ´É is a doublet in which both the items means the same thing. SH will use only ºÉÉ®ú and omit ºÉ´ÉǺ´É* KH uses doublet.

(v) ............ =ºÉEòÉ nùÉ"ÉLJxÉEò {ÉIÉ +‡iÉ =nùÉ®ú +Éè®ú ºÉ¤É EòÉä +Éi¨ÉºÉÉiÉ Eò®úxÉä ¨Éå ºÉ¨ÉlÉÇ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 55

Here the acceptable lexical choice for Sh is either without +‡iÉ or +iªÉxiÉ =nùÉ®ú/¤É½ÖþiÉ =nùÉ®ú, but not +‡iÉ =nùÉ®úü as in this KH sentence.

(vi) VɽþÉÄ iÉEò ¨ÉÉv´É ºÉ¨|ÉnùÉªÉ Eäò iÉi´ÉÉå EòÉ ºÉ´ÉÉ±É lÉÉ nùÉäxÉÉå nù±ÉÉå ¨Éå EòÉä<Ç +xiÉ®ú xɽþÓ lÉÉ*
-- A. p. 146

There are various peculiar lexical usage in this KH sentence from the point of view of SH.

(a) SH will use ‡ºÉrùÉxiÉ instead of iÉi´É the intended meaning being principles.

(b) In SH normally Sanskritised items are not combined with or juxtaposed with perso-arabic words, such a juxtaposition can be done only for certain specific stylistic purposes. Here stylistically instead of ºÉ´ÉÉ±É |É"xÉ will be a better choice.

(c) The lexical item nù±É implies a party, for the intended meaning ºÉ¨ÉÖnùÉªÉ / ´ÉMÉÇ may be a better choice.

Thus the entire sentence will be as follows: VɽþÉÄ iÉEò ¨ÉÉv´É ºÉ¨|ÉnùÉªÉ ‡ºÉrùÉxiÉÉå EòÉ |É"xÉ lÉÉ nùÉäxÉÉå ºÉ¨ÉÖnùɪÉÉå / ´ÉMÉÉç ¨Éå EòÉä<Ç +xiÉ®ú xɽþÓ lÉÉ*

(vii) ............ ‡VÉºÉ VÉMɽþ {É®ú ºjÉÒ Eäò ¨ÉÖĽþ ºÉä ±ÉÉ®ú {Éc÷Ò lÉÒ ´É½þ ºÉÉ¡ò lÉÒ ............
-- A. p. 206

Here SH demands ‡MÉ®úxÉÉ or ‡MÉ®ú {Éc÷xÉÉ or even SÉÚ {Éc÷xÉÉ depending on the context and users. KH sentence ±ÉÉ®ú {Éc÷Ò lÉÒ will be rephrased in SH as ............ ±ÉÉ®ú SÉÚ {Éc÷Ò lÉÒ ªÉÉ ±ÉÉ®ú ‡MÉ®ú {Éc÷Ò lÉÒ ............

(viii) ‡´ÉVÉªÉ xÉMÉ®ú ºÉɃÉÉVªÉ (ºÉxÉÚ 1346 ºÉä 1646 iÉEò) ±ÉMɦÉMÉ iÉÒxÉ ºÉÉè ºÉÉ±É iÉEò ´ÉiÉǨÉÉxÉ ®ú½þÉ*
-- A. p. 223

The use of Sanskritized item ´ÉiÉǨÉÉxÉ is lexically inappropriate in SH. It should be ‡´ÉtɨÉÉxÉ ®ú½þÉ*

(xi) º´ÉɨÉÒ ®úɨÉÉxÉxnù VÉÒ xÉä ¸ÉÒ ºÉ¨|ÉnùÉªÉ Eäò ¦ÉÎCiÉnùÉä¹É EòÒ ={ÉɺÉxÉÉ B´ÉÆ +SÉÇxÉ-‡´É‡vɪÉÉå EòÉä +‡vÉEò ¨É½þi´É xÉ näùEò®ú ............
-- A. p. 55

Use of Sanskrit item in KH is different from SH usage. i.e., here +SÉÇxÉ should be +SÉÇxÉÉ in SH; specifically after ={ÉɺÉxÉÉ in the co-ordinate phrase.

(x) Bä {ÉMɱÉÉä, ªÉ½þ ¨ÉÉxÉ´É VÉx¨É ¤Éc÷É ½èþ, <ºÉä ¤É®ú¤ÉÉnù xÉ Eò®úÉä*
-- A. p. 165

The use of ¤Éc÷É in the above KH sentence semantically peculiar: the appropriate lexical item is nÖù±ÉÇ¦É / ¨É½þÉxÉ or +¨ÉÚ±ªÉ etc. Further more the selection of Persian lexical ¤É®ú¤ÉÉnù is also not appreciated. Persian lexicons are used in SH but in the proper register and proportion. Thus xɹ]õ may be referred here.

(xi) <ºÉ ®úÉ¨É EòÒ ={ÉɺÉxÉÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB xÉ ‡EòºÉÒ ¨ÉÎxnù®ú ¨Éå VÉÉxÉä EòÒ VÉ°ü®úiÉ lÉÒ xÉ ‡EòºÉÒ "ÉɺjÉ-OÉxlÉ EòÉ +´É±ÉÉäEòxÉ Eò®úxÉÉ ½þÒ {Éc÷iÉÉ lÉÉ*

SH +´É±ÉÉäEòxÉ means looking at, seeing, beholding etc.

The context here requires an item like +xÉÖ"ÉÒ±ÉxÉ*

(xiii) <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú ‡SÉxiÉÉ ¨Éå ‡xɨÉMxÉ ½þÉäEò®ú nùÉäxÉÉå ºÉÉä MɪÉä +Éè®ú +SÉÉǨÉÚÌiÉ {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ º´É{xÉ ¨Éå |ÉiªÉIÉ ½þÉä Eò®ú {É䇮úªÉɲ´ÉÉ®ú ºÉä ªÉ½þ {ÉÚUôxÉä ±ÉMÉä ‡Eò iÉÖ¨ÉxÉä +ÉVÉ ............
-- A. p. 196

This KH sentence has several inappropriate lexical choices.

(a) ‡xɨÉMxÉ does not collocate with ‡SÉxiÉÉ as it is used for a more positive absorption than anxiety.
(b) One who is so much absorbed in anxiety does not readily go to sleep as referred to by ............ ºÉÉä MÉB* The entire clause will be rephraseble as follows - <ºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú ËSÉiÉÉ Eò®úiÉä Eò®úiÉä nùÉäxÉÉå ºÉÉä MɪÉä*

+SÉÉÇ in the compound +SÉÉÇ ¨ÉÚÌiÉ is incomprehensible for SH users.

(xiv) <ºÉ ºÉ¤É +SUäô MÉÖhÉÉå Eäò ½þÉäiÉä ½ÖþB ¦ÉÒ ®úÉVÉ{ÉÚiÉ ´ÉÒ®úÉå ¨Éå +xÉäEò nÖùMÉÇhÉ ¦ÉÒ ‡´ÉtɨÉÉxÉ lÉä*
-- A. p. 214-215

Use of +SUäô with MÉÖhÉ is semantically superfluous. MÉÖhÉ refers to only good qualities.

(xv) ............ ºÉ¨ÉÚiÉÇ Eäò ¤ÉÉ®äú ¨Éå Eò<Ç |ÉEòÉ®ú Eäò >ð½þÉ{ÉÉä½þ ½éþ*
-- A. p. 146

>ð½þÉ{ÉÉä½þ in SH means 'indecisiveness', here the item required is ¨ÉiɦÉänù or ‡´ÉSÉÉ®ú etc.

(xvi) +Éhb÷ɳý +xÉÖ{É¨É ºÉÖxnù®úÒ +Éè®ú ‡xÉ®úÒ½þ |Éä¨É EòÒ ºÉÉEòÉ®ú ¨ÉÚÌiÉ lÉÒ*
-- A. p. 195

‡xÉ®úÒ½þ in SH has connotations of helplessness etc. Thus the KH use of ‡xÉ®úÒ½þ as a modifier here is inappropriate.

(xvii) ............<ºÉ EòÉ´ªÉ ¨Éå Eò½þÉxÉÒ EòÒ <EòÉ<Ç EòÒ +{ÉäIÉÉ ®úºÉ ªÉÉ ¦ÉÉMÉ´ÉiÉ-oùι]õ EòÒ <EòÉ<Ç ½þÒ |ÉvÉÉxÉ Eò½þÒ VÉÉ ºÉEòiÉÒ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 183

The use of the lexical item <EòÉ<Ç does not convey the intended meaning. The terms <EòÉ<Ç means 'entity, elevent' etc., in general and as a technical term in Rhetorics it is used in the sense of 'unity'. SH speakers will be inclined to use iÉi´É instead of <EòÉ<Ç* The use of the second <EòÉ<Ç is also unnecessary. The sentence should be read as follows:

............ Eäò iÉi´É EòÒ +{ÉäIÉÉ ®úºÉ ªÉÉ ¦ÉÉMÉ´ÉiÉ oùι]õ ½þÒ |ÉvÉÉxÉ ½èþ*

(a) iÉÒxÉÉå xÉä ªÉÉäMÉ oùι]õ ºÉä näùJÉÉ ‡Eò º´ÉªÉÆ {É®ú¨ÉÉi¨ÉÉ SÉÉèlÉä ´ªÉÏCiÉ Eäò °ü{É ¨Éå PÉÖºÉ +ÉB ½éþ*
-- A. p. 193

In KH you can find a colloquial item in a context and style where it would be considered inappropriate in SH. Here SH might use the compound verb +É VÉÉxÉÉ instead. This would be rephrased as ............ SÉÉèlÉä ´ªÉÎCiÉ Eäò °ü{É ¨Éå +É MɪÉä ½éþ* in SH PÉÖºÉ VÉÉxÉÉ means 'entering forcibly' and this is not what is intended by the KH sentence.

(b) Another example of this type is ¤ÉÖrù ºÉÆPÉÉ®úɨÉÉå ¨Éå xÉÉxÉÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÒ ¤ÉÖ®úÉ<ªÉÉÄ PÉÖºÉ +ɪÉÒ lÉÓ*

This can be rephrased according to SH usage as ............ ¤ÉÖ®úÉ<ªÉÉÄ =i{ÉzÉ / {ÉènùÉ ½þÉä MɪÉÓ lÉÓ / +É MÉ<Ç lÉÓ*

(xix) EòxÉÉÇ]õEò Eäò +xiÉMÉÇiÉ ‡VÉiÉxÉä ¦ÉÒ ¨ÉiÉ vɨÉÇ ‡´ÉtɨÉÉxÉ lÉä ............
-- A. p. 227

¨ÉiÉvɨÉÇ cannot be used as a compound in SH, either ¨ÉiÉ or vɨÉÇ or ¨ÉiÉ +Éè®ú vɨÉÇ can be used according to the context. Furthermore ‡´ÉtɨÉÉxÉ is also deletable.

(xx) |ɦÉÉä, |ɦÉÉä, Eò½þ Eò®ú {ÉÖEòÉ®ú ®ú½þÉ ½ÚÄþ, |ɦÉÉä Eò½þ Eò®ú ‡Sɱ±ÉÉ ®ú½þÉ ½ÚÄþ ............
-- A. p. 119

‡Sɱ±ÉÉxÉÉ is a vulgar, petois usage in SH and does not fit the present context. There is a sharp divergence in the use of colloquial expressions and slangs in KH from SH. At time Kh usage becomes peculiar, and even in comprehensible for the SH user.

(xxi) =xÉEòÒ BEò Eò‡´ÉiÉÉ +ɇnù OÉxlÉ ¨Éå ºÉÆMÉÞ‡½þiÉ ½èþ VÉÉä +ÉMÉä SÉ±É Eò®ú ¨ÉÚÌiÉ-{ÉÚVÉÉ Eäò ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ ¨Éå =nùɾþiÉ EòÒ MÉ<Ç ½èþ*
-- A. p. 56

The KH use of the Sanskrit past participle passive =nùɾþiÉ here is grammatically erroneous from SH point of view. In SH it can be rephrased as:

(i) ¨Éå =rÞùiÉ EòÒ MÉ<Ç ½èþ or
(ii) ‡VɺÉEòÉ ............ ¨Éå =nùɽþ®úhÉ ‡nùªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ½èþ*

(xxii) ªÉ½þÉÄ "ɽþ®ú´ÉÉºÉ EòÉ EòÉä±Éɽþ±É xɽþÓ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 102

Though SH can have compounds of members from Persian and Sanskrit sources, this compound "Éɽþ®ú + ´ÉÉºÉ is not used in SH.

(xxiii) EòÉä<Ç ¨É½þ®úÒ +ÉEò®ú ªÉ"ÉÉänùÉ ºÉä ‡"ÉEòɪÉiÉ Eò®ú ®ú½þÒ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 240

The KH use of the lexical item ¨É½þ®úÒ is wholly inappropriate. In SH ¨É½þ®úÒ means a cleaning women, a maid servant. This item has been confused with Braj word ¨É½þ‡®ú which means 'milkwomen'. However the Braj item is short -i ending.

(xxiv) "ÉÎCiÉ ºÉ´ÉǺÉɇIÉhÉÒ ½èþ, ............
-- A. p. 105

The Compound ºÉ´ÉǺÉɇIÉhÉÒ is not used in SH.

(xxv) VÉ¤É ‡Eò ¤ÉÉèrù +Éè®ú VÉèxÉ vɨÉÉæ EòÉ ½þ¨É±ÉÉ ½Öþ+É, ´Éè¹hÉ´É vɨÉÇ Eäò ºÉÉlÉ-ºÉÉlÉ "Éè´É ‡ºÉrùÉÆiÉ xÉä ‡"É®ú =`öɪÉÉ +Éè®ú +{ÉxÉÒ {ÉÚ®úÒ "ÉÎCiÉ ±ÉMÉÉ Eò®ú ¤ÉÉèrù vɨÉÇ Eäò {Éè®ú =JÉÉc÷ ‡nùªÉä*
-- A. p. 202

In this example, KH uses items from Sanskrit and Perso-Arabic sources in violation of stylistic characteristics. The Arabic form ½þ¨É±ÉÉ needs to be replaced by a form like +¦ªÉÖnùªÉ* The Sanskrit form ‡"É®ú should also be replaced by the inherited form ‡ºÉ®ú* {Éè®ú =JÉÉc÷ ‡nùªÉä is a stylistically inappropriate colloquialism for SH, the context demands formal expression.

(xxvi) ¦ÉÎCiÉ ºÉÉvÉxÉÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB +xÉÖEÚò±É ¤ÉÉiÉɤɮúhÉ iÉèªÉÉ®ú ½Öþ+É +Éè®ú =´ÉÇ®ú VɨÉÒxÉ |ÉÉ{iÉ ½Öþ<Ç*
-- A. p. 53

KH can use a Sanskritic modifier =´ÉÇ®ú for a Perso-Arabic noun head VɨÉÒxÉ which is aginst stylistic constraints in SH. SH will use a Sanskritic noun head in this situation.

(xxvii) Same is the case in the following example in KH. ............ ¤ÉÉä±ÉSÉÉ±É EòÒ ¦ÉɹÉÉ ºÉɇ½þiªÉ ¨Éå xɽþÓ ¤É®úiÉÒ VÉÉiÉÒ lÉÒ*
-- A. p. 153

(xxviii) ´Éä"ªÉÉ+Éå Eäò MÉÉxÉä +Éè®ú xÉÞiªÉ ¦ÉÒ ½Öþ+É Eò®úiÉä lÉä,
-- A. p. 230

In the phrase MÉÉxÉä +Éè®ú xÉÞiªÉ one form is an inherited Hindi item and the other i.e., xÉÞiªÉ is Sanskritic; which is stylistically inappropriate. In a co-ordinate phrase in Hindi both item should be from the same source. We could say here MÉÉxÉ +Éè®ú xÉÞiªÉ or xÉÉSÉ-MÉÉxÉä (MÉÉxÉä +Éè®ú xÉÉSÉ being not allowed collocation in SH).

(xxix) ............ =xÉEòÉ EòÉä<Ç +±ÉMÉ ½þÒ ºÉ¨|ÉnùÉªÉ ®ú½þÉ lÉÉ ªÉ½þ iÉÉä SÉSÉÉÇ EòÉ ‡´É¹ÉªÉ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 54

The intended meaning is conveyed by the KH use of SÉSÉÉÇ at least for the SH user. In SH SÉSÉÉÇ means rumour rather than discussion. SH will use ‡´É´ÉÉnù*

(xxx) ............ BäºÉÒ ‡´ÉEò]õ {ɇ®úκlɇiÉ ¨Éå ‡VÉxÉ ‡"ɴɦÉCiÉÉå xÉä +{ÉxÉä =SSÉ ´ªÉÎCiÉMÉiÉ VÉÒ´ÉxÉ Eäò =nùɽþ®úhÉÉå iÉlÉÉ +{ÉxÉä ¦ÉÎCiÉ ¦É®äú MÉÒiÉÉå Eäò uùÉ®úÉ "Éè´É-vɨÉÇ EòÉ {ÉÖxÉ°üuùÉ®ú ‡EòªÉÉ =xɨÉå SÉÉ®ú +iªÉxiÉ |ɨÉÖJÉ lÉä*
-- A. p. 202
In this case the use of the adjective +iªÉxiÉ is superfluous.

(xxxi) ‡¤É½þÉ®ú Eäò ‡´É½þÉ®úÉå ¨Éå ¤ÉxÉä ½ÖþB ¤ÉÉèrù vɨÉÇ Eäò ‡SÉx½þ ¦ÉÒ iÉä®ú½þ´ÉÓ "ÉiÉɤnùÒ Eäò ¨ÉvªÉEòÉ±É ¨Éå ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉÉå Eäò +ÉGò¨ÉhÉ ºÉä ‡¨É]õ-ºÉä MÉB*
-- A. p. 215

The use of participle ¤ÉxÉä ½ÖþB does not carry the intended meaning. The intended meaning is 'surviving' and that meaning can be conveyed by using +´É‡"ɹ]õ or ¤ÉSÉä ½ÖþB or even κlÉiÉ*

(xxxii) ‡EòxiÉÖ EòzÉc÷ Eäò MÉÒiÉÉå ¨Éå ºÉnùÉ ªÉ½þ º¨É®úhÉ ‡nù±ÉɪÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ ............
-- A. p. 239

The KH use of the lexical item º¨É®úhÉ is semantically inappropriate from SH point of view. We may use ºÉnùÉ <ºÉ ¤ÉÉiÉ {É®ú ¤É±É ‡nùªÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ½èþ ............

10.3. KH uses idioms and idiomatic expressions which are deviant from the SH point of view.

(i) ‡VÉºÉ |ÉEòÉ®ú ¦ÉÉ®úiÉ Eäò +xªÉ ¨É½þÉxÉ ºÉxiÉÉå +Éè®ú Eò‡´ÉªÉÉå Eäò ‡VÉ´ÉxÉ´ÉÞkÉ Eäò ºÉ¨¤ÉxvÉ ¨Éå VÉxɸÉÖ‡iɪÉÉå, >ð½þÉ{ÉÉä½þÉå Eäò +ÉvÉÉ®ú {É®ú ¤ÉÉiÉå Eò½þÒ VÉÉiÉÒ ½éþ ............
-- A. p. 135

(ii) <ºÉ ¨ÉÚÌiÉ Eäò ¤ÉÉ®äú ¨Éå Eò<Ç |ÉEòÉ®ú Eäò >ð½þÉ{ÉÉä½þ ½éþ *
-- A. p. 147

'>ð½þÉ{ÉÉä½þ' is an idiomatic expression meaning 'indecision, hesitation', which is not intended meaning here. In the first example >ð½þÉ{ÉÉä½þ is superfluous and in the second example what is required is ............ vÉÉ®úhÉɪÉå or ¨ÉiɦÉänù or an item expression such an idea.

(iii) EòhhÉ{{ÉxÉɪÉxÉÉ®ú xÉä ‡"É´É Eäò ‡±ÉB +{ÉxÉÒ +ÉÄJÉå =JÉÉc÷ ±ÉÒ lÉÒ*
-- A. p. 206

The idiom =JÉÉc÷ ±ÉäxÉÉ in SH means 'to forcibly uproot something' and cannot be used in a reflexive sense. SH will use either ‡xÉEòÉ±É ±ÉÒ lÉÓ or ¡òÉäc÷ ±ÉÒ lÉÓ*

(iv) ºÉ¤É MÉÉä‡{ɪÉÉå xÉä ‡¨É±ÉEò®ú EÞò¹hÉ EòÉä ½þÉlÉ ¨Éå vÉ®ú ‡±ÉªÉÉ +Éè®ú iÉÖ®úxiÉ ½þÒ ªÉ"ÉÉänùÉ Eäò {ÉÉºÉ VÉÉEò®ú ‡"ÉEòɪÉiÉ EòÒ*
-- A. p. 242

vÉ®ú ±ÉäxÉÉ is a dialectal idiom and is inappropriate for SH. SH will use {ÉEòc÷ ±ÉäxÉÉ*

(v) ¥ÉÀÉ Eäò ‡{ÉiÉÉ EòÉä {ÉÖjÉ EòÒ iÉ®ú½þ ½þÉlÉ ¨Éå =`öÉiÉÒ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 239

The use of ½þÉlÉ ¨Éå =`öÉxÉÉ in KH refers to what in SH will be expressed by ½þÉlÉ ¨Éå ±ÉäxÉÉ or MÉÉänù ¨Éå =`öÉ ±ÉäxÉÉ* Thus the KH phrase is a combination of the two alternate possibilities of SH use.

(vi) ¤É½þiÉä {ÉÉxÉÒ ¨Éå bÖ÷¤ÉEòÒ ±ÉMÉÉiÉä ½ÖþB =ÄMɱÉÒ ‡MÉxÉxÉä ´ÉɱÉÉå EòÉä näùJÉEò®ú ¨ÉÖZÉä ½ÄþºÉÒ +ÉiÉÒ ½èþ*
-- A. p. 164

The expression =ÄMɱÉÒ ‡MÉxÉxÉä ´ÉɱÉÉ is peculiar to KH and is unknown in SH.

11. Sandhi forms:

KH uses forms in which a sandhi according to Sanskrit rules of Sandhi has taken place. Although some such forms are used in SH, it is not possible to use all such forms in SH. Some such Kh usages which are inappropriate from SH point of view are as follows:

(i) ªÉ½þ ¦É‡´É¹ªÉuùÉhÉÒ EòÒ lÉÒ ‡Eò iÉÖ¨½þÉ®äú PÉ®ú ¨Éå {É®ú ‡"É´É-º´É°ü{É BEò ‡"ɴɪÉÉä‡MÉ EòÉ +´ÉiÉÉ®ú ½þÉäMÉÉ*
-- A. p. 124

In SH the form ¦É‡´É¹ªÉ´ÉÉhÉÒ is used and not ¦É‡´É¹ªÉuùÉhÉÒ as the form ¦É‡´É¹ªÉiÉ is not productively borrowed in SH.

(ii) YÉÉxÉ, ¦ÉÎCiÉ, ‡´É®úÎCiÉ ¨Éå ´Éä ºÉ¤É ‡VÉ´ÉÉå ºÉä ¸Éä¹`ö ½èþ, <ºÉ‡±ÉB ´Éä ‡VÉ´ÉÉäkÉ¨É ½éþ*
-- A. p. 150

In SH it will be expressed by using a superlative phrase ºÉ¤É VÉÒ´ÉÉå ¨Éå =kÉ¨É ½éþ and not by the form VÉÒ´ÉÉäkɨÉ*

(iii) ‡VÉºÉ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ ¨ÉֺɱɨÉÉxÉ ®úÉVªÉ +{ÉxÉä ´Éè¦É´É Eäò +iªÉÖSSÉ ‡"ÉJÉ®ú iÉEò {ɽÖÄþSÉ MɪÉÉ lÉÉ ............
-- A. p. 216

SH will use a superlative from =SSÉiÉ¨É here and not wil adjective +‡iÉ*

(iv) =x½þÉåxÉä +xÉxªÉ ¦ÉÎCiÉ EòÉä ¨ÉÉäIÉ EòÉ +´ªÉ´É‡½þiÉÉä{ÉÉªÉ ¨ÉÉxÉÉ ½èþ ............
-- A. p. 55

SH will not use the sandhi form here and it will be ............ ¨ÉÉäIÉ EòÉ +´ªÉ´É½þ‡½þiÉ ={ÉÉªÉ ¨ÉÉxÉÉ ½èþ*

(v) ªÉ½þ VÉÉxÉxÉÉ BEò¨ÉäEò ½þÉäEò®ú VÉÉxÉiÉÉ ½èþ, BEò¨ÉäEò +lÉÉÇiÉ |Éä¨É-|ÉÒ‡iÉ ºÉä ¦É®äú ¨ÉxÉ EòÉä ............
-- A. p. 60

In SH in inflected for BEò¨É is not used and also the sandhi form BEò¨É + BEò = BEò¨ÉäEò is completely alien from SH point of view. SH will use ............ BEò ¦ÉÉ´É ½þÉäEò®ú instead.


It has been mentioned earlier that the translated work '"ÉÉxiɱÉÉ' (Shantala) (B) not only shows all the characteristic features which the original work (A) shows in the areas of noun phrase, word order, post position, adjectival expression, adverb, verb phrase and others, but has a higher incidence of clumsy, unclear and incomprehensible sentences. As enough examples of grammatical deviations have been given earlier, here only a few examples will be given to illustrate the above point:

Noun Phrase:

(i) ªÉYÉ Eäò ‡±ÉB ºÉ¤É |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÒ iÉèªÉɇ®úªÉÉÄ ½þÉä SÉÖEòÓ
B.p. 251

Use of plural form iÉèªÉɇ®úªÉÉÄ of iÉèªÉÉ®úÒ is deviant from SH. SH sentence will be ............ ºÉ¤É |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÒ iÉèªÉÉ®úÒ ½þÒ SÉÖEòÒ*

Word Order:

(i) ®úÉVɨÉÉiÉÉ xÉä +É{ÉEòÉä ªÉ½þ näù +ÉxÉä EòÉä ¨ÉÖZÉä ¦ÉäVÉÉ*
B.p. 58

SH order will ............ ®úÉVÉɨÉÉiÉÉ ¨Éä ¨ÉÖZÉä +É{ÉEòÉä ªÉ½þ ............


(i) ½þ¨ÉÉ®úÒ SÉÉä]õ JÉÉEò®ú =xÉEòÒ ¤ÉÖ‡rù ‡`öEòÉxÉä +É<Ç ½èþ*
B.p. 239

According to SH usage the pronoun ½þ¨ÉÉ®úÒ is superfluous.

(ii) ½þÉä<ºÉ±Éä…É®ú Eäò ‡´É´Éɽþ ¨Éå ‡xɨÉƇjÉiÉ ½þÉäxÉä {É®ú ¦ÉÒ <ǹªÉÉÇ Eäò ´É"É ½þÉäEò®ú ‡VÉiÉxÉä ±ÉÉäMÉ xɽþÓ +ɪÉä lÉä =xÉ ¨Éå iɱɴÉxÉ{ÉÖ®ú EòÉ ®úÉVÉÉ ¦ÉÒ BEò lÉÉ*
B.p. 129

Here according to SH the relative pronoun will be ............ VÉÉä ±ÉÉäMÉ xɽþÓ +ɪÉä lÉä ............ and not ‡VÉiÉxÉä* Here SH usage also demands two postpositions, and a different word order. Thus sentence will be ............ VÉÉä ±ÉÉäMÉ xɽþÓ +ɪÉä lÉä =xɨÉå ºÉä BEò iɱɴÉÉxÉ{ÉÖ®ú EòÉ ®úÉVÉÉ ¦ÉÒ lÉÉ*

Postposition Eäò after <ǹªÉÉÇ and ½þÉäEò®ú in the phrase <ǹªÉÉÇ Eäò ´É"É ½þÉäEò®ú are superfluous. Thus it should be <ǹªÉÉÇ ´É"É VÉÉä ±ÉÉäMÉ ............

Gender Concord:

(i) ªÉÉärùÉ+Éå EòÉ ½ÖÆþEòÉ®ú +Éè®ú ±É±ÉEòÉ®ú ºÉÖxÉEò®ú
B.p. 80

½ÖÆþEòÉ®ú as well as ±É±ÉEòÉ®ú are feminine noun and accordingly post position will be inflected. Thus it will be ªÉÉärùÉäªÉÉå EòÒ ½ÖÆþEòÉ®ú ............

(iii) ¨Éä®úÒ ¤É½þxÉ ±ÉI¨ÉÒ xÉä ´ÉÒhÉÉ ¤ÉVÉɪÉÉ*
B.p. 283
Here again verb ¤ÉVÉÉxÉÉ should be inflected according to the noun ´ÉÒhÉÉ, which is feminine in SH. Thus this will be ............ xÉä ´ÉÒhÉÉ ¤ÉVÉɪÉÒ*


(i) ´Éä +Éè®ú EÖòUô ¤ÉÉä±ÉxÉä Eäò ‡±ÉB b÷®ú MÉ<Ç*
B.p. 88

SH will use ¨Éå / ºÉä postposition here i.e., ............ EÖòUô ¤ÉÉä±ÉxÉä ¨Éå / ºÉä b÷®ú MÉ<Ç*

(ii) º´ÉSUÆônù °ü{É ¨Éå +ɺɨÉÉxÉ ¨Éå =c÷xÉä ´ÉɱÉÉ ‡Sɇc÷ªÉÉå EòÉä Ë{ÉVÉ®äú ¨Éå ¤ÉÆnù Eò®úxÉä ´ÉɱÉä +É{É ±ÉÉäMÉ {ÉilÉ®ú EòÉ ‡nù±É ®úJÉiÉä ½éþ*
B.p. 205

SH usage demands the postposition ºÉä and not the locative Post-position ¨Éå* Stylistically also this sentence of KH, will not be acceptable to SH users.

(iii) ‡¡ò®ú ¦ÉÒ +{{ÉÉ VÉÒ Eäò ‡´É…ÉÉºÉ {É®ú EòÉä<Ç PÉCEòÉ xɽþÓ ±ÉMÉÉ*
B.p. 264

Here in SH would use ‡´É…ÉÉºÉ EòÉä EòÉä<Ç vÉCEòÉ ............ and not ............ ‡´É…ÉÉºÉ {É®ú ............

(iv) iÉ¤É ºÉä ¨ÉxÉ Eåò +xnù®ú ½þÒ ‡½þºÉÉ¤É ±ÉMÉÉ ®ú½þÒ lÉÒ xÉ ?
B.p. 139

SH will use the locative post-position here but not Eäò +xnù®ú SH will use iÉ¤É ºÉä ¨ÉxÉ ¨Éå ½þÒ ‡½þºÉÉ¤É ............

(v) ¡Úò±É {É®ú ºÉä ¡Úò±É {É®ú =c÷iÉä, ®ú½þiÉä ¦ÉÞÆMÉÉå EòÉä ¡Úò±ÉÉå ºÉä +±ÉMÉ Eò®úiÉä ½ÖþB*
B.p. 143

SH sentence will be BEò ¡Úò±É ºÉä nÚùºÉ®äú {É®ú =c÷iÉä ............* Thus SH usage demands and adjective BEò ............ nÚùºÉ®äú before noun: ¡Úò±É post-position {É®ú before ºÉä in this phrase is also superfluous.

(vi) "ÉÉxiɱÉÉ xÉä <ºÉEäò {ɽþ±Éä Eò¦ÉÒ BäºÉÒ =nùªÉ-®ú‡´É-SÉÎxpùEòÉ EòÉ +xÉÖ¦É´É xɽþÓ ‡EòªÉÉ lÉÉ*
B.p. 45

SH usage will be "ÉÉxiɱÉÉ xÉä <ºÉºÉä {ɽþ±Éä ............ <ºÉEäò {ɽþ±Éä is normally considered a substandard use.

Adjectival Phrase:

(i) ½þÉªÉ ¤ÉÒ¨ÉÉ®ú ½þÒEò®ú +É®úÉ¨É Eò®úxÉä ´ÉɱÉä ½þ¨ÉÉ®äú ®úÉVÉÉ xÉä JÉiÉ®äú EòÉä VÉÉxÉä ‡¤ÉxÉÉ ‡Eò±Éä {É®ú SÉgøEò®ú ¤É½ÖþiÉ ¤ÉÖ®úÉ ‡EòªÉÉ*
B.p. 248

The devivation of the constituent elements of the adjectival phrase is deviant. SH will not use ¤ÉÒ¨ÉÉ®ú ½þÉäEò®ú +É®úÉ¨É Eò®úxÉä ´ÉɱÉä* The action of the verb preceding the participle marker Eò®ú precedes the action of the main verb. However in this case ¤ÉÒ¨ÉÉ®ú ½þÉäxÉÉ is not a preceding state but also the cause of the resultant +É®úÉ¨É Eò®úxÉÉ* The whole thing will expressed differently in SH.

Verb Phrase:

(i) ............ ªÉÉärùÉä+Éå EòÉ ½ÖÆþEòÉ®ú +Éè®ú ±É±ÉEòÉ®ú ºÉÖxÉEò®ú ¦ÉÒ ´Éä Eò¦ÉÒ ¦ÉªÉ¦ÉÒiÉ xɽþÓ ½ÖÄþ lÉä, PɤÉÉ®úÉ xɽþÓ MɪÉä lÉä*
B.p. 80

SH will use a single verb vɤɮúÉxÉÉ and not the compound verb PɤɮúÉ VÉÉxÉÉ* Thus the sentence would be ............¦ÉªÉ¦ÉÒiÉ xɽþÓ ½ÖþB lÉä +Éè®ú Eò¦ÉÒ PɤɮúɪÉä xɽþÓ lÉä* In this case SH usage will also require connector and the repetition of the temporal adverb Eò¦ÉÒ*

(ii) ®úÉVɨÉÉiÉÉ xÉä +É{ÉEòÉä ªÉ½þ näù VÉÉxÉä EòÉä ¨ÉÖZÉä ¦ÉäVÉÉ*
B.p. 58

Here SH will use the compound verb näù näùxÉÉ and not näù VÉÉxÉÉ SH will also use the post-position Eäò ‡±ÉB instead of EòÉä* Thus this sentence will be ............ +É{ÉEòÉä ªÉ½þ näù näùxÉä Eäò ‡±ÉB ............

(iii) ¨Éä®äú ¨É®úxÉä Eäò ¤ÉÉnù ¦ÉÒ <ºÉ ´ªÉlÉÉ Eäò EòÉ®úhÉ ¨Éä®úÒ näù½þ VɱÉäMÉÒ iÉEò xɽþÓ*

Here SH needs abilitative compound verb VÉ±É {ÉÉxÉÉ or VÉ±É ºÉEòxÉÉ thus it will be as ............ ¨Éä®úÒ näù½þ VÉ±É xɽþÓ {ÉÉBMÉÒ / ºÉEäòMÉÒ* iÉEò is superfluous here.

(iv) use of ®ú½þxÉÉ
¨Éä®úÉ ªÉ½þ nÖù¦ÉÉÇMªÉ ®ú½þÉ ½èþ ‡Eò ¨Éå `öÒEò ºÉ¨ÉªÉ {É®ú ¤ÉÒ¨ÉÉ®ú {Éc÷ MɪÉÉ ½ÚÄþ*

B.p. 245

Here ®ú½þxÉÉ is not required in SH: only ½þÉäxÉÉ verb conveys the intended meaning ¨Éä®úÉ ªÉ½þ nÖù¦ÉÉÇMªÉ ½èþ ‡Eò ............

(v) Participle froms
............ Eò¦ÉÒ Eò¦ÉÒ ºÉiÉÉ<Ç VÉÉxÉä ±ÉMÉÒ lÉÒ iÉÉä ´É½þ +{ÉxÉä ¨ÉxÉ EòÒ ¤ÉÉiÉ |ÉEò]õ xɽþÓ Eò®úiÉÒ lÉÒ*
B.p. 221

The compound verb phrase oblique infinitive plus inceptive ±ÉMÉxÉÉ is used in SH only for devoting the inception of an action and not for its sustaining.

SH will use Eò¦ÉÒ Eò¦ÉÒ ºÉiÉÉB VÉÉxÉä {É®ú ¦ÉÒ ´É½þ +{ÉxÉä ¨ÉxÉ EòÒ

+Éè®ú BEò ¤ÉÉ®ú ¨ÉÎxnù®ú EòÒ +ÉEÞò‡iÉ EÖòUô ‡¤ÉJÉ®ú MÉ<Ç-ºÉÒ ±ÉMÉÒ*
B.p. 265

The compound verb in this case ‡¤ÉJÉ®ú VÉÉxÉÉ and the main verb does not require to be inflected for gender number. The use will be ............ ‡¤ÉJÉ®ú MÉ<Ç ºÉÒ ............

(vi) ®úÉVɨÉÉiÉÉ xÉä +É{ÉEòÉä ªÉ½þ näù VÉÉxÉä EòÉä ¨ÉÖZÉä ¦ÉäVÉÉ*

SH will use the present perfect form ¦ÉäVÉÉ ½èþ and not just perfect ¦ÉäVÉÉ*

(vii) +É{É "ÉÉxiɱÉÉ EòÉä ºÉÉlÉ ±ÉäEò®ú ®úÉVÉÉ ¨É½þ±É {ɽÖÄþSÉÉ VÉÉ´Éå*

The SH optative form of the verb VÉÉxÉÉ in IIIrd plural is VÉÉBÄ / VÉÉBå and not VÉÉ´Éå which is a dialectal and /or orchaic form.

(iv) <x½þÓ ½þÉlÉÉå xÉä iÉÖ¨É EòÉä ±ÉäEò®ú ‡EòiÉxÉÉ ¤ÉÉ®ú JÉä±ÉɪÉÉ ½èþ*
B.p. 47

The cavasative form of the verb JÉä±ÉxÉÉ is ‡JɱÉÉxÉÉ and not JÉä±ÉÉxÉÉ in SH. It should be ‡JɱÉɪÉÉ ½èþ ............


(i) =x½þÉåxÉä ªÉÖrù ¤ÉÆnù Eò®úxÉä EòÒ iÉÉiEòɇ±ÉEò PÉÉä¹ÉhÉÉ EòÒ*
B.p. 239

Here SH needs an adverb iÉiEòÉ±É and not the adjectival form iÉÉiEòɇ±ÉEò* Ths this will be =x½þÉåxÉä iÉiEòÉ±É ªÉÖrù ¤ÉÆnù Eò®úxÉä EòÒ PÉÉä¹ÉhÉ EòÒ* It may also be noticed that iÉiEòÉ±É will be used before ªÉÖrù ¤ÉÆnù Eò®úxÉä ............ as it is a constituent of the sentence iÉiEòÉ±É ªÉÖrù ¤ÉÆnù Eò®úxÉÉ which is the basis of the derived clauses.

(ii) ºÉ¦ÉÉ iÉÉä iɦÉÒ ºÉ¨ÉÉ{iÉ ½þÉä MÉ<Ç lÉÒ* ¨Éå vÉÒ®äú ºÉä +É<Ç* +CEò xÉä EÖòUô näù®ú iÉEò ®úÉäEò ‡±ÉªÉÉ*

Here according to SH the required adverbial phrase is =ºÉÒ ºÉ¨ÉªÉ and not iɦÉÒ as it is in KH, Two more points are to be noticed in this example.

(1) The lexical item vÉÒ®äú does not convey the intended meaning.
(2) The post-position, will be EÖòUô näù®ú Eäò ‡±ÉB here in SH and not iÉEò*

Emphatic particle:

(i) ±ÉI¨ÉÒ, <ºÉÒ EòÉä º´ÉªÉÆ {Éäc÷ {É®ú SÉc÷xÉä nùÉä, CªÉÉ ºÉnùÉ iÉÖ¨É =ºÉEòÉä ºÉ½þÉ®úÉ näùiÉÒ ®ú½þ ºÉEòiÉÒ ½þÉä*
B.p. 133

Here according to SH, emphatic particle in <ºÉÒ is superfluous; SH sentence will be <ºÉ EòÉä ............ * Three more points are to be noticed here:

(1) Reflexive º´ÉªÉÆ a Sanskriti item is inappropriate here. SH will prefer +{ÉxÉä ºÉä or JÉÚ¤É*

(2) SH will not use also Compound Verb näùiÉä ®ú½þ ºÉEòxÉÉ, instead SH will use single verb näùxÉÉ in future tense ............ ºÉ½þÉ®úÉ nùÉäMÉÒ or compound verb ºÉ½þÉ®úÉ näùiÉä ®ú½þxÉÉ ............ ºÉ½þÉ®úÉ näùiÉÒ ®ú½þÉäMÉÒ*

(3) SH word order will also be different here ............ CªÉÉ iÉÖ¨É =ºÉEòÉä ºÉnùÉ ºÉ½þÉ®úÉ nùÉäMÉÒ / näùiÉÒ ®ú½þÉäMÉÒ*

(ii) VÉ¤É SÉɽþÉä ´É½þÉÄ VÉÉEò®ú ‡¨É±É ºÉEòiÉÒ ½ÚÄþ +Éè®ú VÉ¤É SÉɽäþ, =ºÉÒ EòÉä ¤ÉÖ±ÉÉ ºÉEòiÉÒ ½ÚÄþ*

Here emphatic particle in =ºÉ EòÉä ¤ÉÖ±ÉÉ ºÉEòiÉÒ ½Úþ is enough. Here the form should be in the first person, thus ............ VÉ¤É SÉɽÚÄþ ............ +Éè®ú VÉ¤É SÉɽÚÄþ


(i) ½äþ ‡VÉxÉä"É, ªÉä nùÉäxÉÉå iÉÖ¨½þÉ®úÒ {ÉÖ‡jɪÉÉÆ ½éþ* ¨ÉÉ, "ÉÉ®únùÉ <xÉ ¤ÉSSÉÉå EòÉä vɨÉÇ iÉlÉÉ EÆò`ö-¸ÉÒ |ÉnùÉxÉ Eò®úEäò =¤ÉÉ®úÉä*
B.p. 65

In this example, according to SH it should be ............ <xÉ ¤ÉÎSSɪÉÉå EòÉä ............ because this refers to the feminine noun {ÉÖ‡jɪÉÉå in the preceeding sentence. The item EÆò`ö-¸ÉÒ is also not usede in SH.

(ii) ............ "½äþ +ÎMxÉnäù´É, iÉÖ¨É VÉMÉiÉ EòÒ +SUôÒ ºÉä +SUôÒ ´ÉºiÉÖ EòÉä SÉÖxÉEò®ú ±Éä VÉÉiÉä ½þÉä ............ ºÉ¤ÉEòÉä BEò ºÉÉlÉ ±Éä VÉÉ+Éä* iÉÖ¨½þÉ®úÒ ¤Énù½þVɨÉÒ ºlÉɪÉÒ ½þÉä*
B.p. 192

Here the lexican ¤Énù½þVɨÉÒ does not make the meaning clear.

(iii) +ºÉ¨ÉÉxÉ ºÉä nùÉä näù´ÉiÉÉ ÎºjɪÉÉÄ xÉÉSÉä =kÉ®ú +É<Ç*
B.p. 44

Here SH use ............ nùÉä näù‡´ÉªÉÉÄ xÉÒSÉä xÉÒSÉä ............

(iv) ®úÉVÉ-‡{ÉiÉÞ-¦ÉÚ‡MÉ ¨Éå {ɽÖÄþSÉxÉä {É®ú "É´É ‡SÉiÉÉ {É®ú ®úJÉÉ MɪÉÉ*
B.p. 192

A compound using the Sanskrit item form ‡{ÉiÉÞ is deviant form SH use. SH will use a phrase instead.

(v) +¤É ¨ÉÖJªÉ nùÉäxÉÉå ´ÉvÉÖBÄ |ɦÉÖ Eäò nùÉäxÉÉå ¤ÉMÉ±É ¨Éå +ÉEò®ú ¤Éè`öÓ*
B.p. 121

In SH numeral adjective always precedes the descriptive adjective; thus this sentence will be +¤É nùÉäxÉÉå ¨ÉÖJªÉ ............*

Idiomatic expressions:

Following are the example of KH idiomatic expressions, which are not acceptable in SH.

............ ¨ÉÉiÉÉ EòÉ ¾þnùªÉ lÉÉäcä÷ ½þÒ SÉÖ{É ®ú½þ ºÉEòiÉÉ ½èþ*

¾þnùªÉ SÉÖ{É ®ú½þxÉÉ is not an idiomatic expression acceptable in Hindi.

(ii) ............ nùÒxÉÉå Eäò +iÉ&Eò®úhÉ ‡{ÉPÉ±É Eò®ú {ÉÉxÉÉ-{ÉÉxÉÒ ½þÉä MɪÉä lÉä*
B.p. 73
(iii) ‡VɺÉEòÉ ¨ÉÖĽþ ¨ÉÉä®ú Eäò +ÉEòÉ®ú EòÉ ½èþ*
B.p. 87

This simile of KH is a peculiar use for SH.

(iv) ............ ®úÉVÉ{ɇ®ú´ÉÉ®ú EòÉä "ÉÖrù ºxÉÉxÉ Eò®úEäò ............
B.p. 193

............ "ÉÖrù ºxÉÉxÉ is not used in SH.

Stylistic Deviation:

(i) º´ÉSUÆônù °ü{É ¨Éå +ɺɨÉÉxÉ ¨Éå =c÷xÉä ´ÉɱÉÒ ‡Sɇc÷ªÉÉå EòÉä Ë{ÉVÉ®äú ¨Éå ¤ÉÆnù Eò®úxÉä ´ÉɱÉä +É{É ±ÉÉäMÉ {ÉilÉ®ú EòÉ ‡nù±É ®úJÉiÉä ½éþ*
B.p. 205

(ii) ‡EòºÉÒ nÚù®ú Eäò ‡xÉ"ÉÉxÉä {É®ú iÉÒ®ú ¨ÉÉ®ú ºÉEòiÉä ½þÉä*
B.p. 133

Semantically unacceptable sentences:

(i) +CEò xÉä º´ÉªÉÆ ºÉÉvÉÉ®úhÉ ºÉÉc÷Ò {ɽþxÉÒ lÉÒ, iÉÉä ¦ÉÒ =xÉEäò |ɇiÉ MÉÉè®ú´É EòÉ ¦ÉÉ´É xɽþÓ UÚô]õiÉÉ*
B.p. 59
(ii) ............ BEò ºÉÉlÉ nùÉä |ÉEòÉ®ú EòÒ ‡"ÉIÉÉ ‡nù±ÉÉxÉÉ EÖòUô ¦ÉÉ®úÒ ½þÒ ½èþ*

Illogical and unclear sentences:

(i) ½þiªÉÉ ºÉä Eò±ÉÉ ¤Éc÷Ò SÉÒVÉ ½èþ*
B.p. 245

(ii) ............ VÉ¤É ¨ÉÖJªÉ nùÉäxÉÉå ´ÉvÉÖBÄ |ɦÉÖ Eäò nùÉäxÉÉå ¤ÉMÉ±É ¨Éå +ÉEò®ú ¤Éè`öÓ*
B.p. 121

(iii) ½äþ +ÎMxÉnäù´É, iÉÖ¨É VÉMÉiÉ ............ ºÉ¤ÉEòÉä ±Éä VÉÉ+Éä* iÉÖ¨½þÉ®úÒ ¤Énù½þVɨÉÒ ºlÉɪÉÒ ½þÉä*
B.p. 193

(iv) ºÉÆ¦É´É ½èþ ‡Eò nùÒPÉÇ EòÉ±É ºÉä <xÉ nùÉäxÉÉå EòÉ ºxÉä½þ ºÉÉlÉ-ºÉÉlÉ ®ú½þEò®ú JÉÚ¤É {ÉxÉ{ÉÉ ½èþ*
B.p. 88